Cases reported "Renal Artery Obstruction"

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1/158. Gross hematuria of uncommon origin: the nutcracker syndrome.

    Left renal vein hypertension, also called "nutcracker phenomenon" or "nutcracker syndrome," is a rare vascular abnormality responsible for gross hematuria. The phenomenon is attributable to the idiopathic decrease in the angle between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery with consequent compression of the left renal vein. The entrapment of the left renal vein is not easily detectable by ordinary diagnostic procedures. We report two cases of gross hematuria (persistent in one patient and recurrent in the other) caused by "nutcracker phenomenon." In both cases, no remarkable findings were obtained from medical history, urinary red blood cells morphology, repeated urinalysis, pyelography, cystoscopy, or ureteroscopy. Left renal vein dilation in one case was found with a computed tomography (CT) scan performed on the venous tree of left kidney. The diagnosis of "nutcracker phenomenon" was confirmed by renal venography with measurement of pressure gradient between left renal vein and inferior vena cava in both cases. In one case, the diagnosis was complicated by the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine. The "nutcracker phenomenon" is probably more common than thought. early diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary diagnostic procedures and complications such as the thrombosis of the left renal vein. Many procedures are available to correct the compression of the left renal vein entrapped between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery: Gortex graft vein interposition, nephropexy, stenting, and kidney autotransplantation. After surgery, gross hematuria ceases in almost all patients.
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keywords = thrombosis, vein
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2/158. Detection of renovascular hypertension: saralasin test versus renin determinations.

    Angiotensin blockade was established in hypertensive patients with the competitive inhibitor saralasin and the blood pressure response was compared to prior renin determinations. Two patients with subsequently confirmed renovascular hypertension had normal peripheral renin and non-lateralizing renal vein renin ratios, yet both showed a clear-cut lowering of blood pressure after administration of the blocking agent, indicating the presence of renin-mediated hypertension. Thus, direct in vivo testing with saralasin appears to offer certain advantages over renin determinations.
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keywords = vein
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3/158. renal artery stenosis associated with epidermal nevus syndrome.

    Epidermal nevus syndrome is an unusual neurocutaneous disorder in which epidermal nevi are associated with abnormalities of the skeleton and central nervous system, including the eyes and somtimes the cardiovascular system. We treated a patient in whom the latter included renal artery stenosis. An 18-year-old man with epidermal nevi was diagnosed as having the syndrome based on the additional presence of scoliosis, an arachnoid cyst in the middle cranial fossa, and microphthalmos. hypertension was diagnosed when the patient was 15 years old. The plasma renin activity (9.7 ng/ml/h) was elevated. Right renal artery stenosis was demonstrated by angiography, and the abdominal aorta was narrowed distal to the ostium of the superior mesenteric artery. The plasma renin activity in the right renal vein (16 ng/ml/h) was higher than contralaterally (10 ng/ml/h). Several cardiovascular manifestations have been reported as a complication of epidermal nevus syndrome. hypertension in an individual with epidermal nevi and congenital anomalies should prompt a search for a vascular anomaly.
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keywords = vein
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4/158. Acute renal artery and vein thrombosis after renal transplant, associated with a short partial thromboplastin time and factor v Leiden mutation.

    Renal graft thrombosis is a rare but devastating complication of renal transplantation. It accounts for one-third to one-half of early graft losses. We report a patient with acute renal artery and vein thrombosis associated with abnormally short activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and factor v Leiden mutation. Vascular thrombosis developed on the ninth post-transplant day and led to a graft loss. Before transplantation, the patient had three episodes of thrombosis of arteriovenous access for hemodialysis. Our case illustrates the importance of investigating pretransplant patients for hypercoagulable states, particularly those with short aPTT.
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ranking = 7.6441045101219
keywords = thrombosis, vein
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5/158. A reversible bilateral renal artery stenosis in association with antiphospholipid syndrome.

    We describe a 26-year-old white female with a history of Raynaud phenomenon, erythema nodosum, polyarthralgias, migraine, vertigo, seizures, transient ischemic attacks, one fetal loss, and false positive VDRL, who developed milk hypertension without overt lupus nephritis. She had positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA) antibodies. The lupus anticoagulant test (LAC) and cardiolipins antibodies (aCL) were positive. She was diagnosed as having a Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-like illness (SLE-like) with 'secondary' antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Renal spiral computed tomography (CT) with intravenous (IV) contrast showed bilateral renal artery stenosis. Anticoagulation with acenocumarol was started. She became normotensive without antihypertensive drugs five months later. A follow-up renal spiral CT showed complete recanalization of both renal arteries, making thrombosis the more likely culprit pathology in the stenosis. After two years follow up the patient is normotensive. She remains on acenocumarol.
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ranking = 0.95174298442331
keywords = thrombosis
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6/158. fibromuscular dysplasia: a rare cause of cilioretinal artery occlusion in childhood.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of cilioretinal artery occlusion with angiographic findings characteristic of the "string of beads" associated with renovascular hypertension secondary to fibromuscular dysplasia of the renal artery in a child. DESIGN: Case report. INTERVENTION: The patient underwent ex vivo renal artery reconstruction with saphenous vein graft and reimplantation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main clinical outcomes were control of severe hypertension, reversible hypertensive retinopathy, and improvement of vision. RESULTS: Revascularization of the kidney improved renal function, and renovascular hypertension was clearly improved. visual acuity improved to 20/200. CONCLUSIONS: A child with hypertensive retinopathy and arterial occlusion in the retina should undergo investigation to rule out a surgically curable hypertension. magnetic resonance angiography of extrarenal vessels may reveal other sites of involvement of fibromuscular dysplasia. Evaluation and early diagnosis of renovascular hypertension will prevent severe end-organ damage.
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keywords = vein
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7/158. Renovascular hypertension observed in a patient with antiphospholipid-antibody syndrome.

    The antiphospholipid-antibody syndrome is associated with an increased incidence of arterial and venous thrombosis. Although renal infarction has been observed in these patients, stenotic lesions of the renal artery associated with the antiphospholipid-antibody syndrome have not been reported. A 47-year-old male with a history of hypertension for 7 years developed blurred vision secondary to thrombotic occlusion of the central retinal artery. Laboratory and radiologic examinations revealed renal dysfunction, a positive anticardiolipin antibody, and narrowing of the right renal artery. Successful percutaneous transluminal renal artery angioplasty resulted in normalization of the blood pressure and recovery of renal function.
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ranking = 0.95174298442331
keywords = thrombosis
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8/158. Aneurysmal degeneration and late rupture of an aortorenal vein graft: case report, review of the literature, and implications for conduit selection.

    The saphenous vein is among the most commonly used conduits for renal artery revascularization in adults. Vein grafts are more durable in the renal artery bed than in coronary and peripheral beds, and mechanisms of potential graft failure vary. Coronary vein grafts often fail because of atherosclerotic degeneration, whereas lower extremity grafts fail because of intimal hyperplasia or progression of underlying disease. In contrast, renal vein grafts may dilate over time but seldom fail. This may relate to the distinct hemodynamic environment of the renal bed with low-resistance, high-velocity blood flow. However, frank aneurysmal degeneration of renal vein grafts is rare with only a single report of rupture in the literature. We report an additional case of rupture of a late graft aneurysm and review the literature and our own experience with renal revascularization to underscore the rarity of this serious complication. The saphenous vein for aortorenal bypass grafting continues to be a favorable conduit for renal revascularization. Long-term duplex ultrasound scanning follow-up is recommended to survey the reconstructed artery and perhaps more important, to evaluate progression of subclinical disease in the contralateral renal artery.
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ranking = 0.054289142523772
keywords = vein
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9/158. Successful lysis of an obstructive aortic and renal artery thrombus in a neonate on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    We describe a neonate on venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) with acute renal failure associated with extensive aortic and bilateral renal artery thrombosis. Concurrent anticoagulation and continuous systemic thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) resulted in complete thrombolysis as evaluated by Doppler flow. The relative risk and benefits of thrombolytic therapy in heparinized patients undergoing ECMO needs to be further studied.
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ranking = 0.95174298442331
keywords = thrombosis
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10/158. Renovascular hypertension associated with neurofibromatosis: two cases and review of the literature.

    The authors report two cases of renovascular hypertension associated with neurofibromatosis. A 19-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a complaint of abdominal pain and blood pressure of 180/120 mmHg. Examination revealed cafe-au-lait spots over her chest and extremities. Peripheral plasma renin activity (PRA) under basal conditions was 2.8 ng/ml/h and increased to 12.6 ng/ml/h after administration of 50 mg captopril. plasma and urinary catecholamines were normal. Selective renal angiography showed left aneurysmal dilatation of the segmentary branch and right renal artery stenosis with multiple aneurysmal affecting different branches. blood pressure was controlled by multiple drugs, including beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Another patient, a 20-year-old woman, was admitted because of severe arterial hypertension, numerous cafe-au-lait spots, scoliosis, and mass over the right arm. PRA from the right renal vein was extremely elevated, and selective angiography demonstrated bilateral renal artery stenosis. Aortorenal bypass was performed successfully.
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ranking = 0.0060321269470858
keywords = vein
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