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1/54. Ocular pathology of Lowe's syndrome in a female infant.

    The ocular pathologic findings are presented in a case of a female infant with clinical and biochemical evidence of Lowe's syndrome. A small but increasing number of reports suggest that the mode of inheritance is not always sex-linked. The ocular histopathologic findings in the present case parallel those previously described for this syndrome. While the pathologic findings in other systems are variable, it is thought that the constellation of lens and anterior segment changes are sufficiently characteristic to identify cases of Lowe's syndrome. ( info)

2/54. Lowe's syndrome: identification of carriers by lens examination.

    Lens examinations were performed on 7 obligate and 7 possible carriers of the X-linked gene for Lowe's syndrome, and on 117 controls. By quantitatively grading punctate cortical opacities, it was possible to discriminate between the obligate carriers and the controls with a fair degree of confidence. In the age group most important for genetic counselling, that of child bearing, the data are too limited for the derivation of precise estimates, but may, nevertheless, be useful. More such data are needed. ( info)

3/54. Hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis--three case reports.

    The two most common forms of inherited normotensive hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis are Bartter's and Gitelman's syndromes. Bartter's syndrome typically present with normal or increased calcium excretion. Hypomagnesemia occurs in only one third of affected individuals. In contrast, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria are considered hallmarks of Gitelman's syndrome. In most patients, the symptom of muscle weakness and polyuria occur early in life, which may be attributed to potassium depletion. Despite hyperaldosteronism, the patients tend to be normotensive, which is at least explained by vascular hyperresponsiveness to prostaglandins. Therapeutic approaches to Bartter's and Gitelman's syndromes include potassium supplementation, prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (nonsteroid anti-inflammatory agents), aldosterone antagonists and converting enzyme inhibitors. Three patients with hypokalemia, normal blood pressure, metabolic alkalosis, hyperreninemia and hyperaldosteronism are described. Two patients had Bartter's syndrome and one patients had Gitelman's syndrome. ( info)

4/54. Familial hypouricaemia due to renal tubular defect of urate transport.

    A 28-year-old man was found to have hypouricaemia (plasma uric acid, 0.40 to 1.25 mg/100 ml). The 24-hour urinary urate excretion on a low purine diet was 690 mg, a value higher than the mean value of 419 mg for gouty Japanese patients. Urate clearance was 88.5 ml/min--approximately the same as the endogeneous creatinine clearance. The ratio of urate clearance to creatinine clearance was scarcely altered by pyrazinamide, but diminished by probenecid (from 69.2% to 52.4%). No other renal tubular abnormalities were detected. The findings in this subject may be accounted for by a nearly complete tubular defect in reabsorptive transport mechanisms of urate. A survey of his family revealed at least three similarly affected persons, who were all from consanguineous marriages. The hypouricaemia was transmitted as an autosomal trait. ( info)

5/54. Dent's disease: identification of a novel mutation in the renal chloride channel CLCN5.

    Dent's disease is an inherited tubulopathy caused by a mutation in the CLCN5 chloride channel gene. It is characterized by low-molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis, rickets and eventual-progressive renal failure. Onset of clinical symptoms show a great variability, making a diagnosis at an early stage of the disease often difficult. Given the variably clinical picture, genetic analysis can provide a reliable method to confirm the diagnosis. Here, we report on the case of a patient with progressive renal failure showing signs of a tubular lesion and symptoms of Dent's disease. Although this rare disease was suspected by means of the clinical features, it was genetic analysis that confirmed the diagnosis and revealed a novel mutation in the CLCN5 gene. ( info)

6/54. Stones, bones, and heredity.

    Genetic disorders of mineral metabolism cause urolithiasis, renal disease, and osteodystrophy. Most are rare, such that the full spectrum of clinical expression is difficult to appreciate. diagnosis is further complicated by overlap of clinical features. Dent's disease and primary hyperoxaluria, inherited causes of calcium urolithiasis, are both associated with nephrocalcinosis and urolithiasis in early childhood and renal failure that can occur at any age but is seen more often in adulthood. Bone disease is an inconsistent feature of each. Dent's disease is caused by mutations of the CLCN-5 gene with impaired kidney-specific CLC-5 chloride channel expression in the proximal tubule, thick ascending limb of Henle, and the collecting ducts. Resulting hypercalciuria and proximal tubule dysfunction, including phosphate wasting, are primarily responsible for the clinical manifestations. Low-molecular-weight proteinuria is characteristic. Definitive diagnosis is made by dna mutation analysis. Primary hyperoxaluria, type I, is due to mutations of the AGXT gene leading to deficient hepatic alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase activity. Marked overproduction of oxalate by hepatic cells results in the hyperoxaluria responsible for clinical features. Definitive diagnosis is by liver biopsy with measurement of enzyme activity, with dna mutation analysis used increasingly as mutations and their frequency are defined.These disorders of calcium urolithiasis illustrate the value of molecular medicine for diagnosis and the promise it provides for innovative and more effective future treatments. ( info)

7/54. gitelman syndrome: report of three cases and literature review.

    gitelman syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive, inherited renal tubular disorder. Herein, we report three cases of GS, one sporadic case and two siblings. They have typical laboratory findings, including hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalciuria. All of them were treated with oral potassium and magnesium supplements. They received regular pediatric clinic follow-up to check electrolytes and monitor development. These three cases reminded us that doctors should be alert to unexplained hypokalemia, which is usually the initial presentation of GS. ( info)

8/54. A serum potassium level above 10 mmol/l in a patient predisposed to hypokalemia.

    BACKGROUND: A 58-year-old man, previously diagnosed with Bartter's syndrome, presented with a short history of vomiting, diarrhea and weakness. He had severe hyperkalemia (serum potassium levels >10 mmol/l), which was successfully managed. Post hoc investigation suggested that the patient had Gitelman's rather than Bartter's syndrome. INVESTIGATIONS: physical examination, urine and blood analyses, chest radiography, electrocardiogram, renal ultrasound, and genetic analysis focusing on the SLC12A3 gene, which encodes the thiazide-sensitive Na/Cl cotransporter. diagnosis: Gitelman's syndrome and hyperkalemia secondary to acute renal failure plus exogenous potassium supplementation. MANAGEMENT: Intravenous calcium gluconate, insulin and dextrose administration. Temporary continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. Genetic confirmation of the underlying molecular defect. Long-term treatment for Gitelman's syndrome with oral potassium and magnesium supplements and epithelial sodium channel-blocking drugs. review of patient education regarding renal salt-wasting syndromes. ( info)

9/54. Congenital hypoplastic anemia, diabetes, and severe renal tubular dysfunction associated with a mitochondrial dna deletion.

    Mitochondrial dna (mtDNA) deletion is associated with a variety of clinical entities. In addition to progressive external ophthalmoplegia and kearns-sayre syndrome, mtDNA deletions have been demonstrated in Pearson's syndrome. We report an mtDNA deletion in an infant with a variant of Pearson's syndrome. Not only does she have congenital anemia, severe tubulopathy, and exocrine pancreas insufficiency, but she also has diabetes and cerebral atrophy. However, there are no signs of gut or liver involvement. bone marrow improved while new tissues were involved, thus showing variability in progression of the disease. Decreased respiratory chain enzyme activities were demonstrated in muscle, and an mtDNA deletion was demonstrated in muscle, kidney, leukocytes, and fibroblasts. ( info)

10/54. Congenital fiber type disproportion myopathy in Lowe syndrome.

    Two brothers with the typical clinical features of oculocerebro-renal syndrome of Lowe exhibited delays in developmental milestones, muscular weakness and hypotonia, and high serum creatine kinase activity. The biopsied muscle revealed selective type 1 fiber atrophy and mild type 1 fiber predominance, similar to that observed in congenital fiber type disproportion myopathy. The abnormal fiber type distribution may be responsible for the common finding of muscle hypotonia in this syndrome. ( info)
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