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1/38. Successful non-invasive ventilatory support in a patient with regimen-related toxicity during allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    A 13-year-old patient with transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia major developed acute regimen-related lung toxicity after the conditioning regimen but before allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. He was successfully managed on non-invasive ventilatory support. Advances in non-invasive ventilatory support may drastically improve the outlook of this subset of patients who otherwise have a grim prognosis.
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2/38. Fat embolism syndrome in a case of abdominal lipectomy with liposuction.

    Fat embolism syndrome is reported in a patient who underwent abdominoplasty and suction lipectomy for body contouring. Within 48 hours after surgery, she experienced adult respiratory distress syndrome, secondary to fat embolism syndrome. This was proven on bronchoscopy by evidence of fat laden macrophages. Aggressive respiratory support over 12 days resulted in patient survival.
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ranking = 81.84295420904
keywords = macrophage
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3/38. ARDS after double extrinsic exposure hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    hypersensitivity pneumonitis or extrinsic allergic alveolitis is a lung disease due to T cell and macrophage activation with IgA, IgG or IgE immunocomplex tissue lesions following extrinsic exposure to organic or inorganic agents. We report a case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (pigeon protein sensitized) with a second nosocomial exposure to aspergillus fumigatus proteins from a contaminated oxygen water humidifier: the second extrinsic exposure induced significant acute respiratory failure with ARDS. A pre-existing COPD syndrome requiring prolonged oxygen therapy (7 days) involved lung disease with delayed clinical diagnosis and therapy. Microbiological and mycological analysis of oxygen water humidifiers should be considered, especially for hypersensitivity pneumonitis patients, when a new inexplicable clinical impairment occurs.
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keywords = macrophage
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4/38. Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to tuberculosis in a child after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    We report the occurrence of tuberculosis in a 10-year-old Taiwanese boy, approximately 4 months after he received a matched-related bone marrow transplantation from his sister for acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. After transplantation, grade III acute graft-versus-host disease developed and the patient was treated with prednisolone and cyclosporine. Marrow failure was noted on day 77 post-transplantation, however, after an episode of herpes zoster infection. Interstitial pneumonia, diagnosed on the basis of chest x-ray and computed tomography findings, occurred on day 120. Histologic examination of an open-lung biopsy specimen showed caseating granulomas and a few acid-fast bacilli. The patient died of acute respiratory distress syndrome, despite immediate implementation of antituberculosis therapy. sputum cultures grew mycobacterium tuberculosis 5 weeks later. This report demonstrates that the possibility of tuberculosis needs to be considered in immunocompromised patients, and that appropriate prophylaxis should be instituted in areas where tuberculosis is endemic.
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5/38. Toxoplasmic pneumonitis leading to fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome after engraftment in three bone marrow transplant recipients.

    toxoplasmosis is a rare but severe complication of bone marrow transplantation. Here, we report three patients in whom toxoplasmic pneumonitis developed, leading to fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).All patients had positive pretransplantation tests for toxoplasma gondii and were therefore at risk to develop toxoplasmosis reactivation. They all recovered from aplasia, but soon after they died from brutal and severe ARDS. The possible role of an immunopathologic response to T gondii in the lungs in triggering ARDS is discussed.Early screening of parasitemia using highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction methods in seropositive patients with unexplained fever may be needed.
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6/38. Transient hematopoietic stem cell rescue using umbilical cord blood for a lethally irradiated nuclear accident victim.

    We performed stem cell rescue and allogeneic skin transplantation on a lethally neutron-irradiated nuclear accident victim. HLA-DRB1 mismatched unrelated umbilical cord blood cells (2.08 x 10(7)/kg recipient body weight) were transplanted to an 8-10 Gy equivalent neutron-irradiated patient because of a lack of a suitable bone marrow or peripheral blood donor. Pre-transplant conditioning consisted of anti-thymocyte gamma-globulin alone, and GVHD prophylaxis was a combination of cyclosporine (CYA) and methylprednisolone (mPSL). granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), erythropoietin (EPO), and thrombopoietin (TPO) were concurrently administered after transplantation. The absolute neutrophil count reached 0.5 x 10(9)/l on day 15, the reticulocyte count rose above 1% on day 23, and the platelet count was over 50 x 10(9)/l on day 27, respectively. Cytogenetic studies of blood and marrow showed donor/recipient mixed chimerism. Rapid autologous hematopoietic recovery was recognized after withdrawal of CYA and mPSL. Repeated pathological examinations of the skin revealed no evidence of acute GVHD. Eighty-two days after the irradiation, skin transplantation was performed to treat radiation burns. Almost 90% of the transplanted skin engrafted. Immunological examination after autologous hematopoietic recovery revealed an almost normal T cell count. However, immune functions were severely impaired. The patient died from infectious complication 210 days after the accident.
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7/38. Common features in the onset of ARDS after administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Respiratory disturbance caused by ARDS has been reported during administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. The clinical features of such respiratory distress were investigated in this study. DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: A 1,100-bed university teaching hospital. patients: Five patients who had dyspnea caused by ARDS develop after chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation (BMT) at our hospital. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Levels of cytokines, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing, and the clinical course were analyzed to clarify common features. All five patients possessed HLA-B51 or HLA-B52, and all had fever and an enhanced inflammatory response at the time of the WBC nadir. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-8 levels increased when respiratory distress syndrome occurred. CONCLUSIONS: If patients with HLA-B51 or HLA-B52 have infection develop at the time of WBC nadir after chemotherapy or BMT, ARDS may occur in association with elevation of TNF-alpha and IL-8 during WBC recovery.
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8/38. Investigations into the role of anti-HLA class II antibodies in TRALI.

    BACKGROUND: TRALI is thought to be triggered by recipient-specific anti-HLA class I or antibodies against neutrophils in donor plasma. Recently, anti-HLA class II have also been implicated. The prevalence of anti-HLA class II was investigated in normal volunteer platelet donors and in two nonfatal TRALI cases utilizing a flow-based assay. Potential target antigens also were investigated. STUDY DESIGN AND methods: Commercial flow cytometry-based assays (FlowPRA, One Lambda, Inc.) for anti-HLA class I and II were compared with standard lymphocytotoxicity tests. Subsequently, 151 volunteer platelet donors and two clinical cases of TRALI were screened with FlowPRA. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on lung tissue from a surgical case, an autopsy case, and a fatal TRALI case. RESULTS: The FlowPRA assays showed moderate concordance for anti-HLA class I (kappa = 0.448) and good concordance for class II antibodies (kappa = 0.801), when compared to standard lymphocytotoxicity assays. Ten and 9 percent of female platelet donors were positive for anti-HLA class I and class II, respectively. Two nonfatal cases of TRALI showed both anti-HLA class I and anti-HLA class II. Immunohistochemical analysis of a TRALI case revealed granulocyte aggregation in alveolar capillaries with activated vascular endothelial cells. HLA class II antigen expression was not present on vascular endothelium or intravascular WBCs; however, strong expression was seen on alveolar macrophages. CONCLUSION: FlowPRA assays often detect anti-HLA class I not detected by conventional lymphocytotoxicity assays. These assays reveal anti-HLA class II in normal female donor plasma and in sera implicated in TRALI. Immunohistochemical studies failed to reveal endothelial or intravascular-WBC HLA class II antigen expression in lung tissue derived from TRALI cases or controls, but demonstrated HLA class II expression on pulmonary macrophages.
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ranking = 163.68590841808
keywords = macrophage
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9/38. Fatal immune-mediated pancytopenia and a TRALI-like syndrome associated with high titers of recipient-type antibodies against donor-derived peripheral blood cells after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation following dose reduced conditioning.

    pancytopenia occurring after bone marrow transplantation is a rare complication. A 47 year old patient with progression of multiple myeloma after standard therapy received an allogeneic marrow graft from a matched unrelated donor. The non-myeloablative conditioning regimen consisted of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin and total body irradiation. GVHD prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine. Neutrophil engraftment was as expected and the patient was discharged without signs of acute GvHD. On day 34 the patient presented with clinical and laboratory findings consistent with severe pancytopenia. antibodies against red cells, platelets, lymphocytes and granulocytes were detected in extremely high titers. Immune-mediated pancytopenia was refractory on multiple immunosuppressive treatment strategies. Proliferation of polyclonal plasma cells of recipient-type that was documented postmortem, was most likely responsible for excessive antibody formation.
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10/38. Acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with pulmonary cement embolism following percutaneous vertebroplasty with polymethylmethacrylate.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case of acute respiratory distress syndrome following percutaneous vertebroplasty is described. OBJECTIVE: To alert clinicians to the potential occurrence of acute respiratory distress syndrome following use of polymethylmethacrylate bone cement. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema has not been reported following intravertebral injection of polymethylmethacrylate. methods: A 68-year-old woman underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty for a painful L5 compression fracture under local anesthesia. A contralateral transpedicular approach was made to inject polymethylmethacrylate. RESULTS: On the third postoperative day, she developed arthralgia, myalgia, fever, and frequent coughing. Chest radiography revealed bilateral, multifocal, patchy consolidations, suggestive of acute respiratory distress syndrome, and a 5-cm-long tubular radiopacity in the right pulmonary artery. She died 20 days after the vertebroplasty. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates that clinicians must be aware of the potential occurrence of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients who received percutaneous vertebroplasty.
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