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1/63. Epignathus: a germ-cell tumour presenting as neonatal respiratory distress.

    A full-term neonate developed acute upper airway obstruction immediately after birth secondary to a polypoidal mass in the oropharynx. After the child's airway had been secured, the mass was excised and found to be a nasopharyngeal teratoma, a rare congenital germ cell tumour which is frequently associated with other congenital malformations. It is sometimes possible to diagnose these tumours in utero, thereby enabling appropriate precautions to be taken during the delivery, otherwise if the diagnosis is unknown, then it is essential for any attending clinician to urgently secure the airway by means of either intubation or tracheostomy. Such a case is presented with a review of the possible management options. This case emphasises the fact that although many conditions are uncommon, the total incidence of rare conditions is surprisingly high, and that care needs to be taken at all times in the management of patients, in order not to overlook such life-threatening diagnoses.
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ranking = 1
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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2/63. Bronchodilator responsiveness in a ventilator-dependent infant with severe tracheobronchomalacia.

    A neonatal case of severe, ventilator-dependent tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) is described. The extent of the malacic segment was determined by endoscopy and tracheobronchography. Additionally, relevant and ever increasing reversible peripheral airway obstruction was documented by measuring the mechanical properties of the respiratory system before and after salbutamol. With the combination of endoscopically guided aortopexy and salbutamol infusion, the infant was eventually weaned from mechanical ventilation at the age of 86 days. We speculate that in ventilator-dependent infants with severe TBM the determination of bronchodilator responsiveness may have clinical consequences.
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ranking = 0.74351459291544
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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3/63. Bilateral congenital choanal atresia and absence of respiratory distress.

    Bilateral congenital choanal atresia is considered a lethal congenital malformation in an obligatory nasal breathing neonate. Described herein are two cases of bilateral choanal atresia associated with craniofacial anomalies who did not present respiratory distress in the neonatal period. Our first patient had a complete unilateral cleft lip which facilitated oropharyngeal respiration. The second patient presented wory distress in the neonatal period by providing an oropharyngeal airway.
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ranking = 0.12824270354228
keywords = airway
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4/63. Complete surgical resection of intrapericardial teratoma in a neonate with compression of the central airways.

    Intrapericardial teratoma is a rare but recognised cause of respiratory distress in neonates. patients often present with the compressive effects of the mass within the thorax. Prompt diagnosis should be followed swiftly by surgical resection. We report an unusual case of intrapericardial teratoma in a neonate presenting with collapse of the lung which was successfully treated by surgery.
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ranking = 0.51297081416912
keywords = airway
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5/63. Anterior submucous laryngeal cleft.

    Upper airway obstruction in the newborn is frequently due to congenital laryngeal anomalies. One of these, the posterior laryngeal cleft, is often associated with subglottic stenosis and respiratory difficulty. This discussion of the anterior laryngeal cleft reports findings in an infant who required intubation immediately after birth and survived only 3 days. The anterior cricoid cleft was associated with severe congenital anomalies including congenital tracheal stenosis.
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ranking = 0.74351459291544
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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6/63. A case of pneumomediastinum in paediatric ARDS: to oscillate or not?

    An 18-month-old was transferred (intubated and ventilated) to our hospital with staphylococcal tracheitis, which progressed to a necrotizing pneumonitis, complicated by surgical emphysema and pneumomediastinum. Maximum conventional ventilation on a Servo 300 failed. Treatment with high frequency oscillatory ventilation (for 10 days) with a permissive hypercarbia and hypoxaemia strategy to limit mean airway pressure facilitated recovery in our patient.
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ranking = 0.12824270354228
keywords = airway
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7/63. decompression of multiple pneumatoceles in a premature infant by percutaneous catheter placement.

    Pneumatoceles due to acquired localized overinflation as a form of pulmonary interstitial emphysema are complications of advanced bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Different ventilation modes, selective bronchial intubation, balloon obstruction of the affected bronchus and steroids have been reported with success. Lobectomy has also been used. We present a premature infant with multiple large pneumatoceles causing respiratory compromise. In our case percutaneous decompression under fluoroscopy guidance resulted in a permanent cure.
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ranking = 0.034368541680847
keywords = obstruction
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8/63. Neonatal pneumatocele as a complication of nasal continuous positive airway pressure.

    A preterm infant with mild respiratory insufficiency resulting from respiratory distress syndrome developed a pneumatocele after the start of nasal continuous positive airway pressure. pneumonia was excluded by sputum and blood cultures. Treatment with high frequency oscillation ventilation resulted in complete recovery.
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ranking = 0.6412135177114
keywords = airway
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9/63. Tracheal cartilaginous sleeve in Crouzon syndrome.

    Tracheal cartilaginous sleeve (TCS) is a congenital malformation characterized by fusion of the tracheal arches that may be isolated to a few tracheal arches, include the entire trachea, or extend beyond the carina into the bronchi. TCS has been reported only in children with craniosynostosis. Seven cases of TCS and Crouzon syndrome (CS) are mentioned in the literature. In addition to our case study, a review of the literature on TCS in CS, a classification of TCS and treatment options will be provided. tracheotomy and frequent airway endoscopy coupled with a keen understanding of the shifting sites of obstruction will permit longterm survival in patients with TCS and CS.
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ranking = 0.16261124522313
keywords = airway, obstruction
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10/63. airway obstruction in two extremely low birthweight infants treated with oxygen cannulas.

    Two extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants developed airway obstruction while being treated with oxygen cannulas. We have previously shown that nasal mucosal injury from use of oxygen cannulas in ELBW infants increases nasal secretions and bleeding. Airway patency may be compromised when ELBW infants are treated with oxygen cannulas.
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ranking = 0.88098875963883
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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