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11/63. Percutaneous catheter evacuation of a pneumatocele in an extremely premature infant with respiratory failure.

    Progression of pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) to single or multiple pneumatoceles is uncommon, but may be seen in extremely premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) on mechanical ventilation, after bacterial pneumonia and after suction catheter-induced airway trauma. While most premature infants with pneumatoceles are managed conservatively, mechanical decompression may be necessary.(1-3) Prior descriptions of neonatal intensive-care management of pneumatoceles in premature infants are individual case reports. We report the case of a 1-month-old extremely premature infant with RDS and respiratory failure from superimposed respiratory syncytial viral pneumonitis, PIE, and an enlarging pneumatocele, which was successfully managed with a percutaneously placed pigtail catheter.
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ranking = 1
keywords = airway
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12/63. Congenital pharyngolaryngeal band: report of an unusual case of respiratory distress.

    Congenital pharyngolaryngeal band (PLB) is an extremely rare congenital abnormality, characterized by a fibrous web extending from the nasopharynx to the epiglottis. We report a case of unilateral pharyngolaryngeal band in a new-born who presented severe airway obstruction and feeding difficulties. The band extended from the right postero-inferior part of the nasopharynx to the right lateral margin of the larynx. Faucial pillars and tonsil were absent on this side. Endoscopic and radiological assessments excluded associated cervicofacial abnormality. Two endoscopic laser resection procedures were necessary to liberate the larynx from PLB. Clinical and radiological assessment advocated a second pharyngeal pouch development failure as the origin to PLB.
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ranking = 5.7977145863142
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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13/63. An unusual cause of neonatal respiratory distress.

    Nasal cysts representing cystic extension of the nasolacrimal duct are a rare cause of nasal obstruction and respiratory distress in neonates. A medial canthal mass, epiphora, dacryocystitis or preseptal/orbital cellulitis are the usual presenting symptoms; however, this case shows that patients may present with eye findings so minimal as to be overlooked.
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ranking = 0.26799607877508
keywords = obstruction
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14/63. Vascular ring in an extremely low birth weight infant.

    Vascular rings due to aortic arch anomalies can be a major cause of tracheoesophageal obstruction in infants. But there is no report of vascular ring in an extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infant. This is a report of an infant with birth weight of 560 g, who has not diagnosed vascular ring until 6 months of age because of asymptomatic process by prolonged tracheal intubation. The patient was treated for double aortic arch with tracheomalacia surgically by simple division of the atretic left arch and the ligamentum arteriosus, aortopexy and tracheostomy before reaching full recovery at 3 years of age. We reported our management of vascular rings in the ELBW infant. This case suggested that the difficulty of extubation in ELBW infants in spite of the improvement of respiratory condition should raise a suspicion of the tracheal compression by other lesions such as vascular rings.
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ranking = 0.26799607877508
keywords = obstruction
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15/63. Aspiration of bile as a cause of respiratory distress in the newborn infant.

    Early-onset respiratory distress and a radiographic appearance of an aspiration syndrome occurred in two neonates with gastroschisis who had evidence of inhalation of bile. Hypoxemic respiratory failure developed in both infants, contributing to death or prolonged respiratory morbidity. bile aspiration syndrome should be considered whenever there is early-onset respiratory distress in a neonate with high intestinal obstruction.
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ranking = 0.26799607877508
keywords = obstruction
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16/63. Multiple airway abnormalities in a patient with rothmund-thomson syndrome.

    rothmund-thomson syndrome (RTS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by skin manifestations, juvenile cataracts, and extracutaneous manifestations. The presence of congenital airway abnormalities has not previously been documented in rothmund-thomson syndrome. We report the case of a child with rothmund-thomson syndrome suffering from multiple airway abnormalities. Our case highlights the importance of suspecting multiple airway abnormalities in any child with respiratory distress with other systemic anomalies. This necessitates meticulous anatomical and dynamic examination of the laryngotracheo-broncheal tree.
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ranking = 7
keywords = airway
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17/63. Clinical experience in using a new type of nasal prong for administration of N-CPAP.

    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (N-CPAP) has been used in infants with decreased lung compliance for increasing the functional residual capacity (FRC), decreasing the work of breathing and improving the PaO2/PAO2 (arterial-alveolar PO2 ratio) without intubation. However, the currently available nasal prongs for administration of N-CPAP have presented some problems in fixation, and lesions to the nasal septum or nostrils might be induced by aggressive pressure intended to fix them. We would therefore like to report our experience in using a new type of nasal prong for administration of N-CPAP therapy. The nasal prongs we used were provided by Dr. Wung of Columbia University in new york, who first designed them, and have been used safely, effectively and without any complications.
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ranking = 1
keywords = airway
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18/63. Adjusting the endotracheal tube tip in management of tracheomalacia in an infant.

    tracheomalacia (TM) is an occult central airway problem that may block the endotracheal tube (ETT) tip and cause ventilation risk. Traditional physical examination, chest radiograph, end-tidal CO2 monitoring and blood gas analysis do not easily make the correct diagnosis. Ultra-thin flexible bronchoscopy (FB) is convenient and useful to verify this rare type of ETT obstruction and can also guide the adjustment of the ETT tip to a correct location. We report two TM infants who were successfully diagnosed and managed by FB to correctly reposition the ETT tip.
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ranking = 1.2679960787751
keywords = airway, obstruction
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19/63. Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation connected to an extralobar pulmonary sequestration in the contralateral chest: common origin?

    Extralobar pulmonary sequestration (ELS) and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation have been reported to coexist in several variations. This suggests a common embryologic origin. A 6-month-old boy presented with a history of recurrent pneumonias. The patient was diagnosed with a right lower lobe congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) and a left lower lobe ELS/CCAM. The diagnosis was made with the aid of a multidetector computed tomography (CT). Three-dimensional CT reconstruction showed the presence of a right lower lobe CCAM, a left lower ELS with an aberrant arterial supply from the celiac axis, and possible venous drainage into the right CCAM. The patient underwent a right thoracotomy. Intraoperatively, the lesions were discovered to be connected by a band of tissue. The right lower lobe CCAM and the left ELS were removed from the right chest. Histologic analysis confirmed the presence of a CCAM within the right lower lobe. The ELS had involvement of a type II CCAM within the sequestration. The connection between the right CCAM and left ELS/CCAM showed an anomalous conducting airway, anomalous vein, and anomalous artery connecting the 2 lesions. The authors present the first case of a CCAM connected to an ELS/CCAM in the contralateral hemithorax. The unique anatomic configuration of these lesions suggests a common embryologic origin of ELS and CCAM.
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ranking = 1
keywords = airway
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20/63. endoscopy: a must in neonatal respiratory distress.

    Respiratory distress in a newborn presents both diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. Definitive treatment must be preceded by an accurate diagnosis other than in extremes. Complete tracheal rings are a very rare congenital cause of airway obstruction. Unlike other causes of upper airway obstruction, this cannot be relieved by tracheostomy, which may be counterproductive. We report the case of an 8-day-old female baby who presented with respiratory distress and was found to have complete tracheal rings and right pulmonary agenesis. The value of tracheo-bronchoscopy in this case cannot be overstressed.
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ranking = 11.595429172628
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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