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1/13. subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn associated with anemia.

    subcutaneous fat necrosis (SFN) of the newborn characteristically affects full-term infants who have experienced perinatal distress, such as hypothermia, obstetric trauma, or asphyxia. We report a newborn who had pallor, deep breathing, and severe anemia immediately after birth. She developed SFN on the fourth postnatal day. Her condition improved after blood transfusions and the skin lesions resolved in 6 weeks. This appears to be the first report of SFN associated with anemia.
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2/13. Bilateral congenital choanal atresia and absence of respiratory distress.

    Bilateral congenital choanal atresia is considered a lethal congenital malformation in an obligatory nasal breathing neonate. Described herein are two cases of bilateral choanal atresia associated with craniofacial anomalies who did not present respiratory distress in the neonatal period. Our first patient had a complete unilateral cleft lip which facilitated oropharyngeal respiration. The second patient presented wory distress in the neonatal period by providing an oropharyngeal airway.
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ranking = 2.2326935100963
keywords = respiration, breathing
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3/13. Massive air embolism in a neonate with respiratory distress.

    The occurrence of massive air embolism in a neonate during treatment with intermittent positive-pressure respiration and positive end expiratory pressure is reported as a note of caution. It is possible that this complication may indeed be more common. Careful post-mortem examinations (including radiological examinations) are advocated in order that the true incidence of this devastating event shall be known.
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ranking = 1.2326935100963
keywords = respiration
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4/13. Clinical experience in using a new type of nasal prong for administration of N-CPAP.

    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (N-CPAP) has been used in infants with decreased lung compliance for increasing the functional residual capacity (FRC), decreasing the work of breathing and improving the PaO2/PAO2 (arterial-alveolar PO2 ratio) without intubation. However, the currently available nasal prongs for administration of N-CPAP have presented some problems in fixation, and lesions to the nasal septum or nostrils might be induced by aggressive pressure intended to fix them. We would therefore like to report our experience in using a new type of nasal prong for administration of N-CPAP therapy. The nasal prongs we used were provided by Dr. Wung of Columbia University in new york, who first designed them, and have been used safely, effectively and without any complications.
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5/13. respiratory insufficiency in a newborn with mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall occupying the thoracic cavity.

    The authors describe a newborn patient with mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall associated with pulmonary hypoplasia. A massive thoracic tumor was diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging at the 28th week of gestation. She was delivered through cesarean delivery at the 36th gestational week. Respiratory distress because of pulmonary hypoplasia necessitated neonatal intensive care. The tumor extensively involved the left hemithorax including all 12 ribs and the first 10 thoracic vertebrae, resulting in marked deformity of the thorax. At 5 days of age, she underwent the incisional biopsy through a left thoracotomy. Histopathology of biopsy specimens showed multiple components of mesenchymal origin including premature cartilage, bone, and cystic lesions resembling aneurysmal bone cyst. The tumor then showed a rapid overgrowth, but subsequently exhibited a self-limited growth for months, in which her respiratory condition gradually improved to spontaneous breathing without oxygenation support. The present case advocates perinatal preparations for associated pulmonary hypoplasia and conservative management for the neoplasm in fetuses prenatally diagnosed as having this unique pathological entity.
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6/13. Unilateral pulmonary agenesis associated with colloidal goiter in a newborn: a case report.

    Unilateral pulmonary agenesis is a very rare developmental malformation that is often associated with other anomalies. It can be asymptomatic or present with respiratory symptoms. Our case is a female newborn infant who had been taken to the hospital suffering from difficulty in breathing at the first day of birth. The baby died at the age of three days due to respiratory failure. On autopsy examination and its histopathological evaluation, we detected right pulmonary agenesis and colloidal goiter. According to the literature, pulmonary agenesis is associated with other anomalies including esophageal atresia, tracheal stenosis, musculoskeletal anomalies, digeorge syndrome and cardiovascular malformations such as septal defects, patent ductus arteriosus and total anomalous pulmonary venous return. To our knowledge, this is the first case of pulmonary agenesis associated with colloidal goiter.
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7/13. Case report of Haddad syndrome in a newborn: congenital central hypoventilation syndrome and Hirschsprung's disease.

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a rare disorder characterized by failure of automatic control of breathing. diagnosis is made by exclusion of other causes of hypoventilation. Genetic etiology is strongly suspected. Other autonomic nervous system dysfunctions, tumors of neural crest origin and Hirschsprung's disease are often found in affected children. association with Hirschsprung's disease is known as Haddad syndrome. We present a newborn with respiratory distress since birth and Hirschprung's disease subsequently diagnosed with Haddad syndrome.
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8/13. Apertura pyriformis stenosis in the newborn.

    Apertura pyriformis stenosis in the newborn. Respiratory distress in the newborn can have a variety of aetiologies, the best known of which are cardiac and pulmonary diseases. Major nasal airway obstruction is probably often overlooked when acute desaturation of the neonate requires reanimation procedures, although it is well established that the baby is an obligate nose breather at birth. Nasal airway stenosis or atresia could account for a number of unexplained deaths in the delivery room. In the differential diagnosis of major nasal airway obstruction in the newborn, choanal atresia is by far the most common aetiology. However, a few cases of pyriform aperture stenosis have been reported. One child presenting this pathology was recently treated at the Brussels University Children's Hospital. Unexpectedly, the baby survived until 3 months without any medical support but had severe feeding problems. The diagnosis was confirmed by naso-sinusal CT scan. Surgery was performed at 4 months through an unusual endonasal approach which seems to be less traumatic than the classical sublabial approach. The post-operative course was satisfactory. The 9-month-old patient does not now show residual breathing problems. The presentation will focus on this unusual case.
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keywords = breathing
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9/13. Congenital difficulties with swallowing and breathing associated with maternal polyhydramnios: neurocristopathy or medullary infarction?

    Two babies with congenital difficulties in swallowing and breathing are presented and contrasted. Both were associated with maternal polyhydramnios, but one was due to medullary infarction and the other to a malformation ("neurocristopathy"). In the former case, isolated tenth and twelfth cranial nerve palsies provided the clue as to the correct etiology, whereas the latter baby had dyscoordination of swallowing and breathing with sleep apnea ("Ondine's curse"). It is somewhat ironic that the case without a difficult delivery had the infarct, probably prenatal in onset, whereas the one with a difficult delivery had the congenital malformation. neural crest cells are known to migrate widely and to develop greatly different functions, but the fact that their central associations of neural tube origin may also be affected has not previously been emphasized in the etiopathogenesis of the congenital malformation. A variety of syndromes with combinations of many defects may be seen in which too many or too few cells are formed, with more or less serious consequences especially for the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems.
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keywords = breathing
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10/13. Respiratory complications in patients with myelodysplasia and arnold-chiari malformation.

    Respiratory complications in four patients with myelodysplasia and the arnold-chiari malformation included abnormal control of breathing, upper-airway dysfunction, aspiration pneumonia, and cor pulmonale. Early and prolonged ventilatory support resulted in a favorable outcome in three of four patients.
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