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1/50. Respiratory allergy to mushroom spores: not well recognized, but relevant.

    BACKGROUND: Although basidiospores are a major component of the air spora in many parts of the world, their clinical significance as triggers of respiratory allergy has rarely been demonstrated. Therefore, the class of basidiomycetes as an aeroallergen is not well known. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a cause and effect relationship between respiratory allergy and basidiospores, we illustrate this case report of a 38-year-old housewife. methods: Skin prick test, immunoblot, and active anterior rhinomanometry were used as diagnostic tools to verify specific reactivity of a pleurotus pulmonalis spore extract. Two atopic subjects served as controls. RESULTS: The skin prick test positive study subject reacted with subjective and objective signs including a significant drop of the FEV1 by nasal challenge at a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL of the pleurotus spore extract while both controls were negative even at a higher test concentration. IgE-immunoblot revealed several distinct bands in the serum of the pleurotus-sensitized subject. CONCLUSION: spores of pleurotus pulmonalis, a common mushroom of the fungal class of basidiomycetes, can cause specific, IgE-mediated acute rhinoconjuncivitis and asthma in sensitized individuals.
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2/50. asthma due to kerosene exposure: three case reports.

    Three families comprising 6 adults and 3 children experienced prolonged exposure to kerosene vapour as a result of accidental domestic oil storage tank spills in 3 separate incidents. All were previously well but within 6 to 8 weeks, 3 children and one adult developed asthma which has persisted for more than 2 years. The 5 remaining adults developed upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms (but not asthma) and symptoms of conjunctival irritation. Levels of kerosene vapour were measured in all rooms in one household and were within accepted toxicological limits. kerosene vapour is not considered toxic. asthma caused by kerosene vapour is previously undescribed.
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ranking = 2
keywords = asthma
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3/50. A case of allergy to globe artichoke and other clinical cases of rare food allergy.

    We describe herein four unusual clinical cases of rare allergy to foods in patients affected by allergic rhinitis and asthma. The patients were skin tested both with commercial food extracts and using prick-prick procedure with fresh foods. Total and specific IgE in serum were determined by REAST. Grapes, lupine seeds, black mulberry and artichoke resulted positive in the patients under study. This is the first time allergy to ingested artichoke has been described.
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keywords = asthma
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4/50. Allergy to iguana.

    BACKGROUND: Furry animals produce allergens that can cause allergic rhinitis and asthma. In contrast, scaly animals, such as lizards, are assumed not to be allergenic. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate a 32-year-old man who complained of allergic rhinitis and asthma symptoms that occurred exclusively in his own home. He had dogs and cats at home but denied any increase in symptoms specifically associated with these pets. Skin prick testing initially performed to 42 common aeroallergens, including cat, dog, and house dust mite, elicited negative results. He later reported that the symptoms were worse on exposure to his pet iguanas. methods: Skin prick tests were subsequently performed to an extract made from scales from his pet iguana. Extracts were also prepared from several zoo reptiles. Immunoassays for IgE antibody, as well as IgE immunoblots, were performed by using these extracts and the patient's serum. RESULTS: The skin prick test result with the pet iguana scale extract was positive. The patient's serum contained IgE antibody to his own pet iguana and to a zoo iguana. CONCLUSION: Our patient's history, skin test results, and in vitro studies clearly demonstrate that he is allergic to iguana. physicians should be aware that such allergy to scaly pets may occur and should not restrict history taking to questions about furry pets.
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ranking = 2
keywords = asthma
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5/50. Occupational respiratory hypersensitivity in dental personnel.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study the causes of respiratory hypersensitivity in dental personnel based on the statistics of the Finnish Register of Occupational Diseases (FROD; 1975-1998) and the patient material of the Finnish Institute of occupational health (FIOH; 1990-1998). methods: Details about the cases of respiratory hypersensitivity were compiled from the FROD. The occupational rhinitis diagnoses studied at the FIOH were based on work-related symptoms and a change in the status of the nasal mucosa during challenge testing; and the diagnosis of occupational asthma based on reactions in challenge testing, or on IgE positivity and peak flow monitoring at work and during days off. RESULTS: A total of 64 cases of occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs) was diagnosed in dental personnel during 1975 to 1998 according to the FROD; two cases in 1975 to 1989, and 62 in 1990 to 1998. Twenty-eight cases were of occupational asthma (18 caused by methacrylates), 28 occupational rhinitis (six caused by methacrylates), seven allergic alveolitis and one organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS). The non-acrylate-material diagnosed in 1990-1998 at the FIOH comprised three cases of asthma and one of rhinitis caused by chloramine-T (sodium- N-chlorine- p-toluene sulphonamide); as well as one case of asthma, seven cases of rhinitis, and two cases of combined rhinitis and conjunctivitis caused by natural rubber latex (NRL). Furthermore, one case of occupational rhinitis caused by Nobetec containing colophony was diagnosed. The incidence rate (IR) of ORD increased from 0 in 1988 to a peak of 105.1 new cases per 100,000 working years in 1995. During the last observation year, i.e. 1998, the IR was 55 new cases per 100,000 workers. The IR in dental personnel was lower than in the whole working population in finland up until 1992, but since then has been greater than in the whole population, peaking in 1995 when the IR of dental personnel was 2.55 times greater than in the whole population. CONCLUSION: The present study shows the increasing frequency of respiratory hypersensitivity among dental personnel. Besides methacrylates, important causes of respiratory hypersensitivity are NRL and chloramine-T.
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ranking = 4
keywords = asthma
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6/50. Sinobronchial allergic mycosis: the SAM syndrome.

    We contend that the presence of concomitant allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis in the same patient represents an expression of the same process of fungal hypersensitivity in the upper and lower airways. We have termed this process the SAM syndrome, an acronym for sinobronchial allergic mycosis. Diagnostic criteria have been established for the SAM syndrome, and the clinical characteristics of one previously unreported and four previously reported patients have been tabulated. patients with the SAM syndrome have chronic sinusitis involving multiple sinuses, asthma, immediate cutaneous reactivity to fungal allergens, peripheral eosinophilia, and radiographic evidence of bronchiectasis. Total serum IgE levels are usually elevated as well. A variety of chest radiographic abnormalities may occur, ranging from mass lesions to diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and even normal findings on chest radiographs. patients present for an evaluation of either sinus or lung disease and, at that time, demonstrate no clinical features that distinguish them from patients with isolated sinus or lung disease. All patients reported to date have had clinical responses to therapy with corticosteroids. We postulate that SAM is underdiagnosed in patients with AFS, a disease recently reported from medical centers in the southeastern and western united states. Moreover, since our patient had a mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductor regulator (CFTR) gene, we further hypothesize that CFTR gene mutations may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the SAM syndrome.
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keywords = asthma
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7/50. Specific sensitization to the common housefly (Musca domestica) not related to insect panallergy.

    BACKGROUND: Allergy to houseflies is rare. We report a case of respiratory allergy from occupational exposure to houseflies in a farmer. CASE REPORT: A 30 year-old female farmer with a long-standing history of grass pollen allergy observed for 2 years rhino-conjunctivitis and mild asthma when entering livestock stables and barns. Allergy retesting revealed sensitization to various pollens but not to animal danders. houseflies (Musca domestica) occurring on the farm in great quantity were suspected by the farmer herself as the causative agent. RESULTS: Skin prick testing with housefly was positive in the patient and negative in four controls. Experimental radioallergosorbant test was class 3 positive. Sensitization to house dust mite, storage mites and cockroach was not detectable. Western blots with housefly extracts revealed immunoglobulin e (IgE)-binding to bands of 70, 50, and approximately 16 kDa. tropomyosin in the housefly extract (35 kDa) was recognized by a tropomyosin reference serum but not by the patient. In enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) inhibition assays using housefly as the solid phase, IgE-binding of the patient was inhibited by 75% by M. domestica and by 44% by the closely related lesser housefly (Fannia canicularis), but not by extracts from blowfly (Lucilia spp.), fruit fly (drosophila spp.), horsefly (Haematopota pluvialis) and mosquito (culex pipiens). The IgE-binding of the tropomyosin control serum was inhibited by 60-80% by all species. CONCLUSIONS: In accordance with previous reports, this case demonstrates that respiratory sensitization to insects may be highly specific. According to ELISA inhibition, cross-sensitization in the present case was restricted to species of the family of true flies (muscidae).
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keywords = asthma
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8/50. Respiratory allergy to aspergillus-derived enzymes in bakers' asthma.

    Baking and food industry workers are exposed to several powdered aspergillus-derived enzymes with carbohydrate-cleaving activity that are commonly used to enhance baked products. We describe a retrospective study of sensitization to fungal alpha-amylase and cellulase on bakers. Five bakers in whom respiratory allergy symptoms developed when they were exposed to bread "improvers" that contained fungal alpha-amylase and cellulase were investigated by in vivo and in vitro tests. Type I hypersensitivity to these enzymes was demonstrated in the five patients by means of skin testing, histamine release test, positive reverse enzyme-immunoassay for specific IgE antibodies, and bronchial provocation test response to alpha-amylase or cellulase or both. Isolated immediate and dual responses to the bronchial challenge tests with these enzymes were observed. Immunoblot analysis with use of a pooled serum identified IgE-binding components in both enzymes. In the reverse-enzyme immunoassay-inhibition assays cross-reactivity between alpha-amylase and cellulase was not found, but some degree of cross-reactivity between alpha-amylase and A. oryzae, and between cellulase and A. niger was demonstrated. Four of the patients were also sensitized to cereal flour. aspergillus-derived enzymes used as flour additives can elicit IgE-mediated respiratory allergy, and this fact has to be considered in the diagnosis and clinical management of bakers' asthma.
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ranking = 5
keywords = asthma
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9/50. Occupational asthma (OA) with sensitization to diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) presenting at the onset like a reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS).

    BACKGROUND: Two types of OA are distinguished: immunological (OA with sensitization) and non-immunological, i.e., irritant induced asthma or reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS). methods: We describe the case of a worker who developed respiratory symptoms after a spill of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) at the workplace. RADS was initially diagnosed and the worker resumed working. The progressive worsening of symptoms and the appearance of symptoms-work relationship one year later, when concentrations of isocyanates were no longer "irritant," suggested immunological OA. RESULTS: The diagnosis was confirmed by specific inhalation challenge test, followed by removal from exposure and complete recovery. CONCLUSIONS: In the case of RADS due to an agent with both irritant and sensitizing properties, history should be repeatedly assessed for a possible symptom-work relationship. If this is found, further investigations should be carried out, including specific inhalation challenges, to confirm the possibility of immunological OA.
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ranking = 5
keywords = asthma
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10/50. Respiratory allergy to peach leaves and lipid-transfer proteins.

    BACKGROUND: Several lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs) have been identified as important food allergens, especially in fruits of the rosaceae family. The major peach (prunus persica) allergen has been identified, sequenced and designated Pru p 3. OBJECTIVE: To present Pru p 3 as an aeroallergen able to induce occupational asthma. methods: A thorough investigation was performed in a fruit grower with occupational asthma. Skin prick-prick tests with peach leaves and prick tests with perennial respiratory allergens and pollens, fruits and peach leaf extracts were done. serum-specific IgE was tested for peach leaf, peach fruit, peach skin and respiratory allergens that were positive in skin prick tests. Specific bronchial provocation tests (BPTs) with extracts of peach leaf were also done. Before and 24 h after the BPT, BPTs with methacholine and sputum induction were done. The IgE reactivity pattern to peach leaf and fruit extracts and to Pru p 3 was identified by using SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. Blotting inhibition of peach leaf extract by Pru p 3 was also performed. The putative allergen was quantified in leaf and fruit skin extracts with ELISA based on an anti-Pru p 3 antibody. RESULTS: skin tests were positive for peach leaf and fruit. The BPT was positive, with immediate and delayed response. This test induced a decrease in PD20 (dose of agonist that induces a 20% fall in FEV1) methacholine and an increase in eosinophils and eosinophil cationic protein in sputum. Peach leaf extract contained concentrations of Pru p 3 similar to those found in peach skin. Specific IgE immunodetection showed that patient's sera reacted with Pru p 3, and with a single major band from the peach leaf extract fully inhibited by Pru p 3. CONCLUSION: Pru p 3 from peach leaves can act as a respiratory allergen and cause occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma.
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ranking = 3
keywords = asthma
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