Cases reported "Respiratory Insufficiency"

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1/59. high-frequency jet ventilation using a helium-oxygen mixture.

    The physiological basis for the use of helium relates to the relationship described by Poiseuille. During turbulent gas flow, the factors determining the resistance to flow include the density of gas as well as the length and the radius of a tube. While it may not be possible to readily change the latter two, altering the density of the gas is possible by using helium instead of nitrogen. A helium-oxygen combination has been used most commonly to improve air exchange in patients with upper airway obstruction. Anecdotal reports also suggest the beneficial effects of helium during mechanical ventilation in patients with status asthmaticus, hyaline membrane disease, and other pulmonary parenchymal disorders. To date, the clinical reports have utilized helium only with conventional mechanical ventilation. We present a child whose progressive respiratory failure was treated by using high-frequency jet ventilation with a combination of helium and oxygen. The techniques for the delivery of helium and oxygen through the jet ventilator are discussed.
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2/59. Use of high-dose corticosteroids and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation for treatment of a child with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage after bone marrow transplantation: case report and review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: Other than relapse, pulmonary complications are the most common cause of mortality in patients who undergo bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is one noninfectious pulmonary complication of BMT. Presenting clinical findings include nonproductive cough usually without hemoptysis, dyspnea, hypoxemia, a decrease in hematocrit, and diffuse infiltrates on chest radiograph. PATIENT: We report a case of DAH after allogeneic BMT in a 6-yr-old female patient. Although a chest radiograph revealed patchy bilateral alveolar densities and large volumes of bright red blood were suctioned from the endotracheal tube, there was no evidence of coagulopathy and no infectious agent was identified on examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, blood, and urine. INTERVENTION: The child was treated with high-dose corticosteroids and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and experienced a complete clinical recovery from her pulmonary disease. RESULTS: The definition, presenting symptoms, findings and timing, and associated risk factors of DAH after BMT are reviewed. Prospective hypotheses for the pathogenesis of DAH after BMT are presented. Evidence for the role of high-dose corticosteroids for treatment of DAH after BMT and the role of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation for treatment of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in children with diffuse alveolar disease is also reviewed. CONCLUSION: This case supports the contention that early treatment with high-dose corticosteroids is warranted in children with DAH after BMT.
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3/59. Feasibility of asynchronous independent lung high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in the management of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: a case report.

    OBJECTIVE: To report the first case of the use of asynchronous independent lung high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (AIL-HFOV) in the management of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in a large pediatric patient with markedly asymmetric lung disease. DESIGN: Case study. SETTING: Tertiary pediatric intensive care unit in a pediatric teaching hospital. PATIENT: A 17-yr-old, 87-kg male patient with trisomy 21 and with respiratory failure and progressive hypoxemia because of pneumonia. INTERVENTIONS: intubation with a 37-Fr double-lumen endobronchial tube and ventilation with two oscillatory ventilators for a total of 16 days. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Hemodynamic data were obtained using a pulmonary artery catheter. Adequate oxygenation and ventilation were readily achieved after institution of AIL-HFOV. The F(IO2)/PaO2 ratio increased from 52 to 224, and the shunt fraction decreased from 40 to 9 after 30 mins of AIL-HFOV. F(IO2) was rapidly reduced from 1.0 to 0.4 on the right lung and to 0.6 on the left lung. Mean arterial pressure was maintained, the cardiac index increased from 3.5 to 5.4 L/min/m2, the systemic vascular resistance index decreased from 1513 to 1225 dyne x sec/cm5 x m2, and the pulmonary vascular resistance index decreased from 723 to 428 dyne x sec/cm5 x m2 without the need for additional fluid boluses or increases in inotropic support. No airleaks developed during the entire hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: AIL-HFOV improved oxygenation and hemodynamic performance in this large patient. This case demonstrates that it is feasible to use two high-frequency oscillatory ventilators to independently ventilate the lungs of a large patient with markedly asymmetric lung disease. We believe that AIL-HFOV deserves future study and development for the treatment of large patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and asymmetric lung disease when other choices are limited.
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4/59. Negative extrathoracic pressure in infants with cystic fibrosis and respiratory failure.

    Respiratory support using negative extrathoracic pressure or high-frequency chest wall oscillation was used to treat 3 infants with cystic fibrosis and respiratory failure who had not responded to maximal medical therapy. Beneficial clinical effects were noted in all three cases. Pulmonary function testing was performed in 2 cases, and measures of compliance increased.
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5/59. Management of myxedematous respiratory failure: review of ventilation and weaning principles.

    Respiratory failure in myxedema is a complex medical emergency and may require prolonged ventilatory assistance. Appropriate management of this medical problem requires an understanding of its effects on the central nervous system and peripheral neuromusculoskeletal system. weaning of these patients can be very protracted and requires a diligent multidisciplinary approach. Because of its infrequency, ventilatory management of severe hypothyroidism has not been studied in a controlled fashion. The first part of this review discusses the mechanisms of respiratory failure in myxedema. The second part explores strategies in mechanical ventilation and weaning of myxedematous patients.
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6/59. Severe respiratory failure following charcoal application in a toddler.

    charcoal has been commonly used for enteral detoxication with few adverse effects. In toddlers charcoal can often be simply applied via a gastric tube. Regurgitation and aspiration is considered a rare event. We report the case of a 19-month-old boy who suffered endobronchial charcoal contamination followed by acute airway obstruction and severe respiratory failure despite a commonly used tube placement verification technique. Immediate intubation, tracheal suctioning, intravenous bronchodilators, and high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) were used to control hypercarbia and hypoxia. Eventually charcoal removal by bronchoscopy was successful. Chest X-ray investigation did not reflect the true amount of charcoal deposited endobronchially at any time. We conclude that gastric tube application of charcoal in children carries a risk of aspiration. This may lead to life-threatening respiratory failure with the need to provide artificial ventilation and bronchial lavage.
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keywords = high frequency, frequency
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7/59. Successful management of severe respiratory failure combining heliox with noninvasive high-frequency percussive ventilation.

    Heliox has been shown to be beneficial in the management of different obstructive pulmonary disorders. High-frequency percussive ventilation has recently been advocated to treat lung injury in children with reduced lung compliance. We report our experience of combining heliox with noninvasive high-frequency percussive ventilation in a 5-yr-old boy with severe acute respiratory failure resulting from advanced cystic fibrosis lung disease. The dramatic improvement allowed stabilization and withholding of endotracheal intubation. We hypothesize that this approach improved gas exchange by enhancing molecular diffusion and by favoring laminar flow throughout the upper and lower airways. Further investigations should study the mechanisms of this noninvasive bimodal therapy.
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8/59. Bronchial stenting and high-frequency percussive ventilation treatment of descending aortic aneurysm-induced atelectasis of the left lung.

    IMPLICATIONS: This case report shows that atelectasis of the left lung-induced by extrinsic compression of the left main bronchus by an aortic aneurysm and persisting despite aggressive conservative treatment-may be effectively treated by bronchial stenting and high-frequency percussive ventilation.
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9/59. Use of activated protein c (drotrecogin alfa) in a patient with sepsis and respiratory failure on ultra high frequency jet ventilation.

    Drotreocogin alfa is a recombinant form of human activated protein c that has recently been found to reduce mortality significantly when used in patients with severe sepsis. Bleeding is reported to be the most common adverse effect associated with the use of this drug. patients with sepsis on Ultra High Frequency Jet Ventilator may develop necrotizing tracheobronchitis and may be at an increased risk of bleeding when treated with drotreocogin alfa. We describe a patient with sepsis and respiratory failure on Ultra High Frequency Jet Ventilator, who was started on drotrecogin alfa, without the development of any significant bleeding.
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ranking = 163.77116154056
keywords = high frequency, frequency
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10/59. A survey of complications documented in a quality-control analysis of patient-controlled analgesia in the postoperative patient.

    Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) has become a cornerstone of postoperative pain management in many institutions. Despite the extensive use of this analgesic technique, there are not large population studies to determine the frequency or types of complications associated with PCA in the literature. This study looks at 1122 patients over a 1-yr period. Eight significant complications associated with PCA use were noted during this period. These complications were attributable to overdosage (escalating dosage to meet patient analgesic needs or someone other than the patient administering drug through the PCA device) or to interaction of PCA drugs with concurrent medications. There was a much higher incidence of complications associated with PCA pumps featuring continuous infusion in addition to intermittent bolus compared with those employing intermittent bolus alone. The types of complications encountered in this survey demonstrate instances of PCA use that may present a higher risk to the patient and thus require closer monitoring.
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