Cases reported "Respiratory Insufficiency"

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1/56. coronavirus pneumonia following autologous bone marrow transplantation for breast cancer.

    infectious bronchitis virus, otherwise known as coronavirus, can cause mild upper respiratory tract illnesses in children and adults. Rarely has coronavirus been linked, either by serology or nasal wash, to pneumonia. We report a case of a young woman who, following treatment for stage IIIA breast cancer using a high-dose chemotherapy regimen followed by autologous bone marrow and stem cell transplantation, developed respiratory failure and was found to have coronavirus pneumonia as diagnosed by electron microscopy from BAL fluid. We propose that coronavirus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute respiratory failure in cancer patients who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic support.
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2/56. enzyme therapy in gaucher disease type 2: an autopsy case.

    A Japanese patient with gaucher disease type 2 was treated with enzyme therapy, alglucerase, from 7 to 22 months of age. Whereas hematologic parameters were normalized and hepatosplenomegaly was alleviated, no improvement in neurologic symptoms occurred, and the patient died of respiratory failure at age 22 months. Postmortem examination revealed massive intra-alveolar infiltration of Gaucher cells in lungs and in the central nervous system, i.e., the presence of Gaucher cells in the perivascular Virchow-Robins spaces in the cortex and deep white matter and extensive lamilar necrosis with reactive proliferation of blood vessels and macrophage infiltration of the cerebral cortex. It is suggested that enzyme therapy, with thus far recommended dose, does not prevent long-term respiratory and central nervous system involvement in severe varients of Gaucher disease.
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keywords = macrophage
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3/56. kerosene-induced severe acute respiratory failure in near drowning: reports on four cases and review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to present an unusual respiratory and cardiovascular course after intoxication and near drowning in a river contaminated with kerosene. DESIGN: case reports and review of the literature. SETTING: intensive care unit of a university-affiliated hospital. patients: Four patients after near drowning. INTERVENTION: Supportive only. RESULTS: The four patients developed acute respiratory failure. Cardiomyopathy was present in three patients and a persistent hypokalemia in two patients. The onset of the symptoms was delayed, which led to underestimation of the severity of their illness. Two of the four patients died. The diagnosis of hydrocarbon intoxication was based on bronchoalveolar lavage results, neutrophilic alveolitis with the presence of lipid-laden macrophages, and evidence of lipoid pneumonia from the autopsy performed on one victim. One patient who clinically deteriorated and another who developed a severe restrictive pulmonary disorder were treated with corticosteroids, which were effective only in the latter patient. CONCLUSIONS: Acute kerosene intoxication in a near-drowning event often results in severe respiratory and cardiac failure, with a high fatality rate. Treatment with corticosteroids may lead to a rapid improvement in lung function.
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4/56. Combination of membrane oxygenator support and pulmonary lavage for acute respiratory failure.

    A 24-year-old woman with chronic granulocytic leukemia and alveolar proteinosis required extracorporeal membrane oxygenator support for respiratory failure refractory to conventional therapy. During perfusion, each lung was lavaged with 10 L. of normal saline. The lavage led to marked clearing of the lungs and improvement in pulmonary function. Extracorporeal support was terminated successfully after 54 hours. The patient died 2 weeks later with bone marrow insufficiency and overwhelming sepsis. Pulmonary lavage is technically feasible during venovenous oxygenator bypass, and may be of value, since such lavage debrides alveoli as well as the bronchial tree. Because pulmonary lavage provides a possible means of improving pulmonary function, it seems worthy of consideration as an adjunct to membrane oxygenator support.
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5/56. Use of high-dose corticosteroids and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation for treatment of a child with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage after bone marrow transplantation: case report and review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: Other than relapse, pulmonary complications are the most common cause of mortality in patients who undergo bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is one noninfectious pulmonary complication of BMT. Presenting clinical findings include nonproductive cough usually without hemoptysis, dyspnea, hypoxemia, a decrease in hematocrit, and diffuse infiltrates on chest radiograph. PATIENT: We report a case of DAH after allogeneic BMT in a 6-yr-old female patient. Although a chest radiograph revealed patchy bilateral alveolar densities and large volumes of bright red blood were suctioned from the endotracheal tube, there was no evidence of coagulopathy and no infectious agent was identified on examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, blood, and urine. INTERVENTION: The child was treated with high-dose corticosteroids and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and experienced a complete clinical recovery from her pulmonary disease. RESULTS: The definition, presenting symptoms, findings and timing, and associated risk factors of DAH after BMT are reviewed. Prospective hypotheses for the pathogenesis of DAH after BMT are presented. Evidence for the role of high-dose corticosteroids for treatment of DAH after BMT and the role of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation for treatment of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in children with diffuse alveolar disease is also reviewed. CONCLUSION: This case supports the contention that early treatment with high-dose corticosteroids is warranted in children with DAH after BMT.
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6/56. Respiratory failure in postpneumonectomy syndrome complicated by thoracic lordoscoliosis: treatment with prosthetic implants, partial vertebrectomies, and spinal fusion.

    STUDY DESIGN: This study investigated the case of a 17-year-old girl with postpneumonectomy syndrome, complicated by a thoracic lordoscoliosis, who was successfully treated with prosthetic implants, partial vertebrectomies, and anteroposterior spinal fusion. OBJECTIVE: To report a unique case and describe the authors' method of treatment. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Postpneumonectomy syndrome is an uncommon complication of pneumonectomy. Many case reports describe successful treatment with insertion of prosthetic implants into the empty hemithorax to shift the mediastinum to its original position. Thoracic lordoscoliosis reportedly has contributed to pulmonary compromise, but no cases have shown its occurrence in the setting of postpneumonectomy syndrome. methods: The patient was observed at the National Children's Hospital in tokyo, referred to Children's Hospital in los angeles, california for surgical correction, and followed in tokyo for the next year. RESULTS: Two prosthetic implants with an injection port for further expansion were positioned in the right hemithorax to restore the mediastinum to its normal position. Anterior discectomies, partial vertebrectomies, and fusion of T5-T10 was performed concurrently. Then 5 days later, posterior spinal fusion of T1-T12 with instrumentation and bone graft were performed to correct the thoracic lordoscoliosis and increase the chest cavity space. At 1 month after the surgery, the patient was extubated after being ventilator dependent for 5 months. At the time of operation, the girl was ventilator dependent and nonambulatory, but 1 year later could participate in all activities of daily living without any oxygen supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: Postpneumonectomy syndrome can be treated successfully with prosthetic implants to restore the normal position of the mediastinum. Thoracic lordoscoliosis can complicate the syndrome and may be corrected to help restore normal pulmonary function.
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7/56. Nucleus of the tractus solitarius metastasis: relationship to respiratory arrest?

    BACKGROUND: A 52-year-old woman with metastases in brain and bone had clinical and radiological response to therapy but died about 10 weeks after diagnosis. General autopsy failed to identify a primary neoplasm or an anatomic cause of death. Investigation of sudden respiratory cessation was a consideration when undertaking an anatomic study of the brain. methods: review of patient records and careful examination of the brain following autopsy were carried out. RESULTS: The patient had terminal episodes of hypersomnia but episodes of sleep apnea were not observed. She received no respiratory support and no respiratory difficulties were recorded until she was pronounced dead at 7 a.m. autopsy revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma in a pattern suggestive of a primary pulmonary neoplasm, including multiple cerebral metastases, although no significant pulmonary lesions of any type were found. A 0.2 cm metastatic adenocarcinoma was found in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS). No other tumor was present in the brain stem. CONCLUSIONS: Unilateral destruction of the NTS in the medulla would have severely disturbed the most critical point of convergence of autonomic and voluntary respiratory control and of cardiocirculatory reflexes in the central autonomic network. It is postulated that this caused respiratory arrest during a state transition from sleeping to waking. Few metastases to the medulla are reported, most are relatively large, and several have caused respiratory symptoms before death. The very small metastasis in our patient could be the direct anatomic cause of death, and as such it is an unusual complication of metastatic disease of which clinicians should be aware. It is speculated that dysfunction of direct NTS connections to the pons or of connections passing close to the metastatic deposit resulted in terminal hypersomnia.
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8/56. Chronic graft-versus-host disease-related polymyositis as a cause of respiratory failure following allogeneic bone marrow transplant.

    An unusual case of respiratory failure and dropped head syndrome as a complication of severe chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-related polymyositis is described. The patient required tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation but recovered following treatment with aggressive immunosuppression and intensive rehabilitation. The differential diagnoses of muscle weakness in the bone marrow transplant (BMT) patient and the dropped head syndrome are both discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation occurring as a complication of GVHD-related polymyositis.
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9/56. Acute respiratory failure due to "pulmonary calciphylaxis" in a maintenance haemodialysis patient.

    calciphylaxis is a rapidly developing, fatal process of vascular calcium deposition with prominent cutaneous manifestation. We treated a long-term haemodialysis patient who developed an analogous disorder limited to the lungs. A 57-year-old man was admitted for initiation of peritoneal dialysis because limited cardiac reserve precluded further haemodialysis. He was treated successfully for pneumonia until hypoxia and progressive hypercalcaemia developed. (99m)Tc-methylene disphosphonate scintigraphy showed diffusely increased pulmonary uptake. Death supervened despite aggressive and successful treatment of hypercalcaemia. autopsy studies included immunohistochemistry and morphometric studies of bone. Alveolar capillary walls showed diffuse calcium deposition. Both gross and microscopical findings differed from those of typical metastatic calcification in dialysis patients. Immunoreactivity for parathyroid hormone-related protein was present in the lesions. Bone histomorphometry indicated mild osteitis fibrosa. pneumonia is believed to have caused local synthesis of parathyroid hormone-related protein that, along with high calcium x phosphorus product, contributed to calcium deposition. By analogy with the cutaneous process we termed the deposition "pulmonary calciphylaxis".
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10/56. Fatal hemolysis after high-dose etoposide: is benzyl alcohol to blame?

    A 53-year-old African-American man with relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma developed seizures and respiratory arrest 2 hours after an infusion of high-dose etoposide in preparation for an autologous bone marrow transplant. Laboratory tests revealed both rapid hemolysis and severe metabolic acidosis. The patient died the following day. Based on toxicities observed, we suspect that our patient possessed an ethnic polymorphism of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase. Further research is required to determine the relationship between the benzyl alcohol metabolic rate and toxicity and genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase in African-Americans.
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