Cases reported "Respiratory Insufficiency"

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1/169. myasthenia gravis presenting with dysphagia and postoperative ventilatory failure.

    We report a case of myasthenia gravis presenting to the department of otolaryngology with acute dysphagia on two separate occasions over a one-year period. diagnosis of myasthenia gravis was made when the patient developed ventilatory failure after his second general anaesthetic for rigid oesophagoscopy. Our patient required emergency transfer to the intensive therapy unit for ventilation. He improved after treatment with corticosteroids, anticholinesterase and immunosuppressive medications. Our case was unusual in that cricopharyngeal spasm causing dysphagia and significant aspiration was demonstrated by a barium swallow and this was completely resolved after treatment of the myasthenia gravis.
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2/169. Transient left ventricular failure following bilateral lung transplantation for pulmonary hypertension.

    BACKGROUND: Bilateral lung transplantation is an established therapy for end-stage pulmonary hypertension. Its early postoperative outcome may be biased by various complications resulting in unexpected deterioration of the patient in terms of hemodynamics and blood gases. methods: We have reviewed the early postoperative course of patients who underwent bilateral lung transplantation for pulmonary hypertension at our institution and analyzed all available data, especially hemodynamic measurements, echocardiographic documentation and therapeutical strategies, in those cases where cardiac dysfunction was found to be responsible for clinical deterioration. RESULTS: Three out of 20 lung transplant recipients operated for pulmonary hypertension experienced severe respiratory insufficiency accompanied by hemodynamic decompensation during the first days after surgery. Clinical and laboratory findings together with results of echocardiography and pulmonary artery catheterism helped establish the diagnosis of left ventricular failure. This proved to be transitory, but the response to therapy (inotropic drugs, afterload reduction and eventually prostaglandins) was very variable. Adequately treated, this complication did not preclude the outcome of transplantation by itself. CONCLUSION: Left ventricular failure is a possible complication after lung transplantation for pulmonary hypertension. echocardiography and pulmonary artery catheterism may be useful adjuvant diagnostic tools, beside routine physical examination, chest X-ray, and laboratory analysis. Therapy of this complication must be adapted individually and may be complex.
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ranking = 0.5
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3/169. Infiltration block for caesarean section in a morbidly obese parturient.

    We report a case of a morbidly obese parturient (150 kg and 150 cm) for emergency lower segment caesarean section for dead foetus. Her pregnancy had been unsupervised. She presented with severe pre-eclampsia, generalized oedema and acute respiratory failure. Caesarean section was performed under infiltration block using lidocaine 0.5-1.0%. Her status improved postoperatively with aggressive physiotherapy, nursing in a semirecumbent position and oxygen supplementation.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = operative
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4/169. Occipitocervicothoracic fixation for spinal instability in patients with neoplastic processes.

    OBJECT: Occipitocervicothoracic (OCT) fixation and fusion is an infrequently performed procedure to treat patients with severe spinal instability. Only three cases have been reported in the literature. The authors have retrospectively reviewed their experience with performing OCT fixation in patients with neoplastic processes, paying particular attention to method, pain relief, and neurological status. methods: From July 1994 through July 1998, 13 of 552 patients who underwent a total of 722 spinal operations at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center have required OCT fixation for spinal instability caused by neoplastic processes (12 of 13 patients) or rheumatoid arthritis (one of 13 patients). Fixation was achieved by attaching two intraoperatively contoured titanium rods to the occiput via burr holes and Luque wires or cables; to the cervical spinous processes with wisconsin wires; and to the thoracic spine with a combination of transverse process and pedicle hooks. Crosslinks were used to attain additional stability. In all patients but one arthrodesis was performed using allograft. At a follow-up duration of 1 to 45 months (mean 14 months), six of the 12 patients with neoplasms remained alive, whereas the other six patients had died of malignant primary disease. There were no deaths related to the surgical procedure. Postoperatively, one patient experienced respiratory insufficiency, and two patients required revision of rotational or free myocutaneous flaps. All patients who presented with spine-based pain experienced a reduction in pain, as measured by a visual analog scale for pain. All patients who were neurologically intact preoperatively remained so; seven of seven patients with neurological impairment improved; and six of seven patients improved one Frankel grade. There were no occurrences of instrumentation failure or hardware-related complications. In one patient a revision of the instrumentation was required 13.5 months following the initial surgery for progression of malignant fibrous histiosarcoma. CONCLUSIONS: In selected patients, OCT fixation is an effective means of attaining stabilization that can provide pain relief and neurological preservation or improvement.
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ranking = 0.75
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5/169. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation facilitates tracheal extubation after laryngotracheal reconstruction in children.

    Tracheal extubation after laryngotracheal reconstruction in children may be complicated by postoperative tracheal edema and pulmonary dysfunction. The replacement of a tracheal tube in this situation may exacerbate the existing injury to the tracheal mucosa, complicating subsequent attempts at tracheal extubation. We present two cases where noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation was employed to treat partial airway obstruction and respiratory failure in two children following laryngotracheal reconstruction. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation served as a bridge between mechanical ventilation via a tracheal tube and spontaneous breathing, providing airway stenting and ventilatory support while tracheal edema and pulmonary dysfunction were resolved. Under appropriate conditions, noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation may be useful in the management of these patients.
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ranking = 0.25
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6/169. Bilateral nephrectomy, peritoneal dialysis and subsequent cadaveric renal transplantation for treatment of renal failure due to polycystic kidney disease requiring continuous ventilation.

    We report here on a newborn with end-stage renal failure due to autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, also causing ventilation-requiring respiratory distress. peritoneal dialysis was able to keep the newborn alive but not wean it from the respirator. After removal of both huge kidneys, dialysis became more effective and allowed the neonate to be extubated only 5 days later. It was decided to register the baby for a pediatric cadaveric kidney transplant when it reached 6 kg/body wt or to perform a living related transplant if no such kidney became available and the baby grew to 7 kg/body wt. At the age of 9 months and a weight of 6 kg a cadaveric kidney from a 20-month-old donor became available and was transplanted extraperitoneally. Prophylactic immunosuppression included cyclosporin, mycophenolate mofetil and steroids. pneumonia on post-operative day 10 required respiratory care for several days and acute rejection requiring peritoneal dialysis. Both complications were controlled with antibiotics and conversion from cyclosporin to tacrolimus and a temporary increase in steroids. Thirteen months later the child is alive and well with a serum creatinine of 0.6 mg%. From this experience we would recommend early removal of both polycystic kidneys causing end-stage renal failure and respiratory insufficiency, starting peritoneal dialysis and performing a renal transplant as soon as possible. This therapeutic strategy seems appropriate for this complex situation.
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keywords = operative
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7/169. Giant congenital epigastric hernia.

    Epigastric hernia is rare in children. When it occurs, as in adults, it is usually small. This is a report of a giant, congenital epigastric hernia which was repaired early to prevent complications. Though there was a brief period of postoperative respiratory difficulty, the final outcome was satisfactory. This case is interesting due to its massive size and congenital nature.
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8/169. Respiratory distress in a child caused by lipoma of the esophagus.

    A 6-year-old girl with a 2-year history of respiratory distress is described in this report. On investigation, a mass occupying the proximal half of the esophageal lumen, which was causing compression of the mediastinum, was found. It was removed surgically by a thoracic approach. On histological examination it was confirmed to be a lipoma of the esophagus. The child had an uneventful postoperative course. English-language literature on lipoma of the esophagus is reviewed briefly.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = operative
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9/169. Pulmonary failure after Norwood procedure: indication for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation? A case report.

    Today some authors consider univentricular repair a contraindication for postoperative cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The question is whether or not ECMO is indicated as pulmonary support in case of an overwhelming pulmonary infection during the postoperative course after a Norwood procedure. During the prolonged weaning period after a Norwood procedure using a 4 mm aortopulmonary shunt, proven respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis occurred at the time of expected weaning from artificial ventilation. Venovenous ECMO was able to improve oxygenation, but when pulmonary opacification failed to resolve, ECMO was terminated after 12 days.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = operative
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10/169. Glycinothorax: a new complication of transurethral surgery.

    A 76-year-old woman sustained inadvertent perforation of her posterior bladder wall during transurethral resection of a bladder tumour. In the immediate postoperative period, she developed life-threatening respiratory failure following the formation of a large, unilateral pleural effusion. After therapeutic drainage, biochemical analysis of the effusion revealed that it had a high concentration of glycine. The fluid used for intra- and postoperative bladder irrigation had leaked from the perforated bladder and collected in the pleural cavity. This type of hydrothorax complicating endoscopic urological surgery has not been described previously.
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