Cases reported "Respiratory Insufficiency"

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1/1895. A reversible cause of hypercapnic respiratory failure: lower motor neuronopathy associated with renal cell carcinoma.

    We describe a unique case of a patient with a reversible paraneoplastic motor neuronopathy who presented with hypercapnic respiratory failure. The patient developed progressive respiratory and limb muscle weakness until treated with removal of a renal cell carcinoma, which was followed by a complete resolution of neuromuscular symptoms. The literature of paraneoplastic motor neuronopathies is reviewed, specifically in reference to respiratory failure. ( info)

2/1895. coronavirus pneumonia following autologous bone marrow transplantation for breast cancer.

    infectious bronchitis virus, otherwise known as coronavirus, can cause mild upper respiratory tract illnesses in children and adults. Rarely has coronavirus been linked, either by serology or nasal wash, to pneumonia. We report a case of a young woman who, following treatment for stage IIIA breast cancer using a high-dose chemotherapy regimen followed by autologous bone marrow and stem cell transplantation, developed respiratory failure and was found to have coronavirus pneumonia as diagnosed by electron microscopy from BAL fluid. We propose that coronavirus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute respiratory failure in cancer patients who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic support. ( info)

3/1895. Lung function during hoist rescue operations.

    INTRODUCTION: A case is presented in which a 43-year-old man suffering from a severe asthma attack, had ventilatory arrest during a hoisting procedure. Based on this experience, the influence of three hoisting techniques on lung function was tested. methods: The ventilatory capacity of 12 healthy volunteers was tested during three commonly used hoisting techniques: 1) single sling; 2) double sling; or 3) strapped to a stretcher. RESULTS: The vital capacity (VC) and the one-second, forced expiratory volume (FEV1) were reduced significantly during all hoisting techniques compared to the standing position. The reduction was significantly more pronounced on a stretcher than in either sling position. There were no differences in the FEV1 to VC ratio between the positions. CONCLUSION: The small reduction in ventilatory capacity during hoisting procedures is tolerated easily by healthy individuals, but should be taken into account when planning such procedures on patients with severe pulmonary disease. ( info)

4/1895. pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    We describe the case of a 53-year-old philadelphia-chromosome-positive woman with chronic myelogenous leukemia, who developed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). The possible mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of PAP are discussed based on the clinical and laboratory data for this patient as well as on experimental and clinical data reported in the literature. ( info)

5/1895. myasthenia gravis presenting with dysphagia and postoperative ventilatory failure.

    We report a case of myasthenia gravis presenting to the department of otolaryngology with acute dysphagia on two separate occasions over a one-year period. diagnosis of myasthenia gravis was made when the patient developed ventilatory failure after his second general anaesthetic for rigid oesophagoscopy. Our patient required emergency transfer to the intensive therapy unit for ventilation. He improved after treatment with corticosteroids, anticholinesterase and immunosuppressive medications. Our case was unusual in that cricopharyngeal spasm causing dysphagia and significant aspiration was demonstrated by a barium swallow and this was completely resolved after treatment of the myasthenia gravis. ( info)

6/1895. Bochdalek diaphragmatic hernia presenting with acute gastric dilatation.

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia through the foramen of Bochdalek may present after infancy. A 21/2-year-old Malay girl presented with acute respiratory distress. Chest examination showed reduced chest expansion and decreased breath sounds on the left side. Chest radiograph showed a large "cyst" in the left chest, which was thought to be a lung cyst under tension. Tube thoracostomy resulted in clinical improvement. Results of a barium study showed that the cyst perforated by the thoracostomy tube was the stomach, which had herniated through a Bochdalek diaphragmatic defect. Surgical repair of the diaphragmatic defect and closure of the perforated stomach was performed successfully. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia should be included in the differential diagnosis of respiratory distress in young children. Nasogastric tube placement must be considered as an early diagnostic or therapeutic intervention when the diagnosis is suspected. ( info)

7/1895. zidovudine-associated type B lactic acidosis and hepatic steatosis in an hiv-infected patient.

    A 34-year-old obese woman with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection diagnosed a year earlier was seen because of nausea, vomiting, and intermittent diarrhea for 3 weeks. Her current medications included zidovudine. physical examination revealed tachypnea and tender hepatomegaly. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed hepatomegaly with fatty infiltration. liver enzymes were within normal range except for elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The serum bicarbonate value was low, with a lactate level three times normal. The tachypnea and dyspnea worsened as lactate concentrations rapidly increased to 15 times normal. Although her Po2 and cardiac index were initially adequate, the patient had acute respiratory failure. She died with multiorgan dysfunction, including hepatic failure, severe lactic acidemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and renal failure. autopsy revealed hepatomegaly and massive steatosis. physicians should consider lactic acidosis in patients taking zidovudine and having unexplained tachypnea, dyspnea, and low serum bicarbonate concentrations. ( info)

8/1895. enzyme therapy in gaucher disease type 2: an autopsy case.

    A Japanese patient with gaucher disease type 2 was treated with enzyme therapy, alglucerase, from 7 to 22 months of age. Whereas hematologic parameters were normalized and hepatosplenomegaly was alleviated, no improvement in neurologic symptoms occurred, and the patient died of respiratory failure at age 22 months. Postmortem examination revealed massive intra-alveolar infiltration of Gaucher cells in lungs and in the central nervous system, i.e., the presence of Gaucher cells in the perivascular Virchow-Robins spaces in the cortex and deep white matter and extensive lamilar necrosis with reactive proliferation of blood vessels and macrophage infiltration of the cerebral cortex. It is suggested that enzyme therapy, with thus far recommended dose, does not prevent long-term respiratory and central nervous system involvement in severe varients of Gaucher disease. ( info)

9/1895. Prolonged respiratory failure in chlamydia pneumoniae pneumonia.

    We describe a 65-year-old man, who had cardiomyopathy and developed acute respiratory failure requiring ventilator treatment. Acute pneumonia caused by chlamydia pneumoniae was diagnosed based on PCR positivity of bronchoalveolar lavage. Gas exchange did not improve in response to appropriate antibiotic therapy, and the patient died. ( info)

10/1895. Transient left ventricular failure following bilateral lung transplantation for pulmonary hypertension.

    BACKGROUND: Bilateral lung transplantation is an established therapy for end-stage pulmonary hypertension. Its early postoperative outcome may be biased by various complications resulting in unexpected deterioration of the patient in terms of hemodynamics and blood gases. methods: We have reviewed the early postoperative course of patients who underwent bilateral lung transplantation for pulmonary hypertension at our institution and analyzed all available data, especially hemodynamic measurements, echocardiographic documentation and therapeutical strategies, in those cases where cardiac dysfunction was found to be responsible for clinical deterioration. RESULTS: Three out of 20 lung transplant recipients operated for pulmonary hypertension experienced severe respiratory insufficiency accompanied by hemodynamic decompensation during the first days after surgery. Clinical and laboratory findings together with results of echocardiography and pulmonary artery catheterism helped establish the diagnosis of left ventricular failure. This proved to be transitory, but the response to therapy (inotropic drugs, afterload reduction and eventually prostaglandins) was very variable. Adequately treated, this complication did not preclude the outcome of transplantation by itself. CONCLUSION: Left ventricular failure is a possible complication after lung transplantation for pulmonary hypertension. echocardiography and pulmonary artery catheterism may be useful adjuvant diagnostic tools, beside routine physical examination, chest X-ray, and laboratory analysis. Therapy of this complication must be adapted individually and may be complex. ( info)
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