Cases reported "Respiratory Paralysis"

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1/35. Hemidiaphragmatic paresis after interscalene supplementation of insufficient axillary block with 3 mL of 2% mepivacaine.

    Breathing difficulty, agitation, and confusion developed in a 55-year-old male, ASA classification group III with a non-small-cell lung cancer 10 min after interscalene supplementation of insufficient axillary block with 3 mL of 2% mepivacaine with adrenaline 5 microg mL(-1). After administration of thiopentone and suxamethonium the patient's trachea was intubated and the lungs were ventilated with oxygen-enriched air. The block was successful and surgery was conducted as scheduled. Radiographic monitoring of the lungs at the end of operation showed ipsilateral elevation of the diaphragm with reduced respiratory excursions. Postoperatively, the patient was somnolent and hypercapnic, but maintained satisfactory oxygenation while breathing spontaneously and was extubated. Both the temporal relationship of events and the regression of all symptoms within three hours suggest that 3 mL of mepivacaine with adrenaline injected into the interscalene space blocked the phrenic nerve and compromised diaphragmatic function, which precipitated the respiratory failure.
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2/35. Diaphragmatic paralysis following cervical chiropractic manipulation: case report and review.

    This case report documents an uncommon cause of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis resulting from phrenic nerve injury during cervical chiropractic manipulation. Several months after the initial injury, our patient remains short of breath and has difficulty breathing in the supine position. Other causes of diaphragmatic paralysis and phrenic nerve injury are reviewed.
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3/35. Dyspnoea exaggerated in the supine position and during exertion--diagnostic challenge.

    The case of dyspnoea, exaggerated when in the supine position and during exertion, as a result of severe weakness of the diaphragm is reported. The aim of the study was to present a rare case of idiopathic bilateral diaphragmatic paresis (BDP) and to describe all the diagnostic procedures necessary to perform differential diagnostics. In order to establish the final diagnosis, chest radiography, haemodynamic evaluation of the circulatory system, ultrasonography, ultrasonocardiography, measurement of transdiaphragmatic pressures, scintiscanning of the lungs, spirometry, analysis of arterial blood gases, computed tomography of the thorax and external stimulation of the phrenic nerve were performed. The measurement of transdiaphragmatic pressure was crucial to establish and confirm the diagnosis of BDP, as only a small difference in gastric and oesophageal pressures during tidal breathing and inspiratory efforts was recorded. As no cause of diaphragmatic paresis was found, the case was classified as idiopathic. The final diagnosis of non-trauma related bilateral diaphragmatic weakness was generally delayed. In the case of the described patient, dyspnoea, the main symptom he was suffering from, was supposed to result from his congenital heart defect. We recommend that the suspicion of idiopathic diaphragmatic paresis should always be raised in patients suffering from respiratory failure of unknown origin. It is, however, necessary to perform extensive diagnostics to exclude the other causes of phrenic-diaphragmatic impairment. It's also necessary to consider all infections, injuries and surgical procedures within the thorax as possible causes of diaphragmatic paresis.
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4/35. Idiopathic bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis.

    A 41-year-old man complained of subacute onset of dyspnea and pain in the neck and chest. He was diagnosed with bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis, based on clinical inspection of the breathing pattern and transdiaphragmatic pressure recording, and was trained to use a portable bi-level positive airway pressure apparatus (BiPAP). Needle electromyography showed profuse fibrillation potentials and positive waves in the diaphragm, more abundant on the right than left side, and no response to phrenic nerve stimulation. Other muscles were not involved. Follow-up examinations, performed at 9 and 12 months after onset of paralysis, demonstrated a slow but progressive improvement of the patient's respiratory function, together with the appearance of reinnervation potentials in the diaphragm, and polyphasic, long-latency responses to phrenic nerve stimulation. The subacute onset of the paralysis associated with local pain, and its subsequent recovery, suggest bilateral proximal lesions in the phrenic nerves. In the absence of traumatic or metabolic causes, these findings suggest that the phrenic nerve can be a target in idiopathic neuritis.
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5/35. A case of frog breathing.

    Frog breathing (glossopharyngeal breathing) is a useful technique employed to increase ventilation when respiratory muscles are paralysed. It is a technique used by many patients with chronic poliomyelitis, yet many chest physicians and physiotherapists are unfamiliar with this breathing maneuver. Glossopharyngeal breathing coordinates movements of the tongue, cheeks and pharynx to force air from the mouth into the lungs. We report a case of glossopharyngeal breathing, demonstrating a 3 fold increase in vital capacity in a subject with chronic poliomyelitis.
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6/35. Accidental total spinal block: a complication of an epidural test dose.

    A case is presented of a 36-yr-old parturient who developed a total spinal block after an epidural test dose. After placement of an epidural catheter and confirming negative aspiration for blood or CSF, 3 ml lidocaine 1.5% (45 mg), with 1:200,000 epinephrine (15 micrograms) was injected via the catheter over 30 sec. Within two minutes the patient developed hypotension and extensive sensory and motor block including respiratory paralysis and aphonia. She remained fully conscious and alert and spontaneous respiration recommenced in five minutes. A live healthy infant was delivered by emergency Caesarean section shortly afterwards under general anaesthesia and the mother recovered completely without any untoward sequelae.
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keywords = respiration
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7/35. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) for spinal cord injury.

    Restoration of respiratory motion by stimulation of the phrenic nerve was investigated. Respiratory motion was restored successfully by introducing a breathing pacemaker to a patient with respiratory disturbance due to upper cervical spinal cord injury. Breathing pacemakers are considered to be more similar to physiological conditions compared to mechanical ventilators. Although the system is very expensive, its cost effectiveness may be excellent, provided that it can be used for long hours each day over an extended period. The system is effective in improving patient QOL because it dramatically increases patient mobility. From these findings, it is concluded that breathing pacemakers should be used more frequently in japan, and that various forms of support are necessary to cope with economic and other concerns.
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keywords = breathing
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8/35. Improved diaphragmatic function after surgical plication for unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis.

    We studied pulmonary function tests, maximal voluntary ventilation, arterial blood gases, and respiratory muscle strength and recruitment pattern in a 37-yr-old symptomatic man before and after surgical plication for a left unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis. After plication, FVC, FEV1, TLC and FRC increased, whereas residual volume remained unchanged. Arterial PO2 improved from 70 to 87 mm Hg. Diaphragmatic strength, as expressed by the maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure increased from 30 to 75 cm H2O, and maximal voluntary ventilation increased from 74 to 123 L/min. Ventilatory muscle recruitment also changed: there was a shift from a positive to a negative delta Pg/delta Ppl slope during tidal breathing. This indicates more effective diaphragmatic recruitment after the procedure. We conclude that surgical plication may be of benefit to patients with symptomatic unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis. The improvement is due to improved respiratory muscle function.
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keywords = breathing
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9/35. Respiratory inductance plethysmography used to diagnose bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis: a case report.

    OBJECTIVE: To report the use of respiratory inductance plethysmography in the diagnosis and management for a case of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis after repeated sternotomies in a 23-month-old child. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: A 15-bed pediatric cardiothoracic intensive care unit in an academic children's hospital. INTERVENTIONS: The patient could not be weaned from the ventilator after a repeat sternotomy for pulmonary artery reconstruction. Pulmonary function test results were within normal limits, and plain film radiography, ultrasonography, and fluoroscopy were unable to establish a definitive diagnosis. Evaluation of thoracoabdominal synchrony was undertaken using respiratory inductance plethysmography (RespiTrace). The work of breathing was assessed using esophageal manometry to obtain the pressure-rate product. RESULTS: During spontaneous breathing, complete thoracoabdominal asynchrony was noted, with clockwise Konno-Mead loops and associated phase angles of nearly 180 degrees. The pressure-rate product was 120 cm H(2)O/min, indicating elevated work of breathing. The pressure-rate product decreased dramatically, as indicated by measurement and observation, in response to increased levels of continuous positive airway pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis can be confirmed by measurement of thoracoabdominal synchrony. Therapeutic and diagnostic application of continuous positive airway pressure may predict response to diaphragmatic plication. Controlled trials comparing measurement of thoracoabdominal synchrony with standard methods for the early diagnosis of diaphragmatic paralysis are needed.
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keywords = breathing
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10/35. Long-term observations of patients with infantile spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1).

    We describe 6 unrelated patients affected by infantile spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1) with prolonged survival upon mechanical ventilation (4.5-11 years), which has not been reported before. Biallelic mutations in the IGHMBP2 gene proved the diagnosis of SMARD1 in all patients. disease onset was in the first 2 months in the described patients, starting with generalised hypotonia, failure to thrive, and early breathing difficulties. Diaphragmatic palsy was diagnosed and permanent ventilation was initiated 2-8 months after onset. Within months a more distal muscular atrophy became evident associated with joint contractures (talipes), hand drops, and fatty finger pads. Motor development remained minimal, loss of function was observed within the first year after which no further progression was recorded. Voiding dysfunction with reflux nephropathy was observed in 3 patients and has not been reported before. Further evidence of autonomic nerve dysfunction resulting in cardiac arrhythmia, hypertension, and excessive sweating was given in 2 patients. Investigative results were largely compatible with those obtained in classic SMA. However, neurogenic atrophy muscle was more pronounced in distal muscles, if examined, and there was evidence of peripheral nerve involvement at least in some patients.
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