Cases reported "Respiratory Sounds"

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1/14. Stridor in a 6-week-old infant caused by right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery.

    BACKGROUND: Persistent infant stridor, seal-like cough, and difficulty feeding can be the initial signs of right aortic arch with an aberrant left subclavian artery. This congenital cardiovascular abnormality results in the development of a vascular ring that encircles the trachea and esophagus. methods: A case report is presented that describes the evaluation and care of a 6-week-old male infant whose condition was diagnosed as right aortic arch and aberrant left subclavian artery after he was brought to the family practice clinic with a history of persistent stridor. This case report involved a patient seen in the author's outpatient clinic during a well-child check. Data were obtained from the patient's medical record and review of his radiologic diagnostic tests. medline and Index Medicus literature searches were conducted for the years 1966 to the present, using the key words "stridor" and "vascular ring," with cross-references for earlier articles. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Persistent or recurrent stridor associated with feeding difficulties should prompt an investigation for a vascular ring. In general, an anteroposterior and lateral neck radiograph and a posteroanterior and lateral chest radiograph are usually the initial diagnostic tests to evaluate stridor. Persistent stridor and new-onset regurgitation of formula in a 6-week-old infant prompted an escalation of the patient's workup to include a barium swallow, which subsequently showed compression of the esophagus caused by a vascular ring. In some cases direct observation with a laryngoscope or bronchoscope might be necessary to determine the cause of stridor. Indications for hospitalization of patients with stridor include stridor at rest, dyspnea, actual or suspected epiglottis, repeatedly awakening from sleep with stridor, a history of rapid progression of symptoms, toxic appearance, and apneic or cyanotic episodes. The primary care provider should be familiar with the evaluation and management for patients with the complaint of persistent or recurrent stridor.
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keywords = esophagus
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2/14. Esophageal foreign body presenting with stridor: report of one case.

    We report a case of a 12-month-old infant who developed acute respiratory distress with stridor from an impacted proximal esophageal foreign body. She was treated inappropriately as upper respiratory infections prior to the validation of the presenting complaint. Difficulties in diagnosis of esophageal foreign bodies arise, when the patient presents with atypical symptoms. Clinical suspicion remains the most important aid to diagnosis and endoscopic examination is essential for the diagnosis and successful management of foreign bodies in the esophagus.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = esophagus
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3/14. Achalasia presenting as acute airway obstruction.

    Achalasia presenting as acute airway obstruction is an uncommon complication. We report the case of an elderly woman with previously undiagnosed achalasia who presented with acute respiratory distress due to megaesophagus. Emergency endotracheal intubation and insertion of a catheter into the esophagus, with continuous aspiration was required. Upon introduction of the esophageal catheter an abruptand audible air decompression occurred, with marked improvement of the clinical picture. Endoscopic injection of botulinum toxin was chosen as the definitive treatment with good clinical result. The pathophysiology of the phenomenon of esophageal blowing in achalasia is unclear, but different hypothetical mechanisms have been suggested. One postulated mechanism is an increase in upper esophageal sphincter (UES) residual pressure or abnormal UES relaxation with swallowing in achalasia patients. We reviewed the UES manometric findings in 50 achalasia patients and compared it with measurement performed in 45 healthy controls. We did not find any abnormalities in UES function in any of our achalasia patients group, or in the case under study. An alternative hypothesis postulates that airway compromise in patients with achalasia results from the loss UES belch reflex (abnormal UES relaxation during esophageal air distension), and in fact, an abnormal UES belch reflex was evidenced in our case.
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ranking = 1
keywords = esophagus
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4/14. vocal cord paralysis secondary to impacted esophageal foreign bodies in young children.

    Impacted foreign bodies in the esophagus can result in respiratory symptoms including stridor and aphonia. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain these symptoms, but the possibility of vocal cord paralysis and its cause has not been adequately emphasized. Two cases of young children with esophageal foreign body are described; both presented with respiratory symptoms, 1 with aphonia and the other with stridor. In both cases, the symptoms were secondary to vocal cord paralysis. A possible mechanism of recurrent nerve injury is proposed.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = esophagus
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5/14. Unusual features of pulmonary sling.

    patients with an anomalously placed left pulmonary artery ("pulmonary sling") typically have signs and symptoms of respiratory obstruction in the neonatal period. Experience with four previously unreported patients confirmed this. Typical radiographic features include unilateral air trapping (usually on the right side), an abnormal position of the esophagus, and a soft tissue mass interposed between the trachea and esophagus. Less common findings include a normal esophageal position, left-side air trapping, and delayed egress of neonatal pulmonary fluid. Both typical and atypical features were seen; the more unusual aspects are emphasized.
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keywords = esophagus
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6/14. Chronic inspiratory stridor secondary to a retained penetrating radiolucent esophageal foreign body.

    Although foreign body ingestions are common in infants and young children, penetration of the esophagus is a relatively rare event. Timely diagnosis is impeded by the absence of classical symptoms and by the ingestion of radiolucent foreign bodies. The authors present a 17-month-old girl with a 6-month history of inspiratory stridor. An extensive workup found a penetrating radiolucent foreign body at the thoracic inlet.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = esophagus
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7/14. Management of acute dilatation of the oesophagus presenting as stridor.

    Acute dilatation of the oesophagus causing stridor is rare. A case is presented and the literature is reviewed with emphasis on the management of this problem.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = esophagus
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8/14. Previously treated oesophageal achalasia re-presenting with stridor.

    Achalasia is a motility disorder of the oesophagus that typically presents with dysphagia, regurgitation and chest pain. A rare presenting symptom is stridor. A case of previously treated achalasia re-presenting with stridor is described and associated imaging presented.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = esophagus
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9/14. All that wheezes.

    New onset wheezing in the young child can present an interesting differential diagnostic challenge, especially when there is an atypical presentation of a foreign body lodged in the airway. A thorough history and physical examination helps, but one must remember that a foreign body in the trachea or esophagus can masquerade as a respiratory illness. The chest x-ray is a useful part of the evaluation process. A high degree of suspicion is necessary on the part of the physician to remember that "all that wheezes is not asthma," even in the absence of a history of aspiration of a foreign body.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = esophagus
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10/14. Inspiratory stridor and dysphagia because of prolonged oesophageal foreign body.

    A 2-year-old boy with severe inspiratory stridor and dysphagia is described. The delay in the diagnosis of an impacted foreign body resulted in severe deformation of the oesophagus. After surgical extraction of the foreign body the oesophagus was splinted for 4 months by a nasogastric tube because of persistent severe dysphagia. Removal of this tube was followed by a gradual disappearance of the complaints.
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ranking = 1
keywords = esophagus
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