Cases reported "Respiratory Sounds"

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1/27. Stridor in a 6-week-old infant caused by right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery.

    BACKGROUND: Persistent infant stridor, seal-like cough, and difficulty feeding can be the initial signs of right aortic arch with an aberrant left subclavian artery. This congenital cardiovascular abnormality results in the development of a vascular ring that encircles the trachea and esophagus. methods: A case report is presented that describes the evaluation and care of a 6-week-old male infant whose condition was diagnosed as right aortic arch and aberrant left subclavian artery after he was brought to the family practice clinic with a history of persistent stridor. This case report involved a patient seen in the author's outpatient clinic during a well-child check. Data were obtained from the patient's medical record and review of his radiologic diagnostic tests. medline and Index Medicus literature searches were conducted for the years 1966 to the present, using the key words "stridor" and "vascular ring," with cross-references for earlier articles. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Persistent or recurrent stridor associated with feeding difficulties should prompt an investigation for a vascular ring. In general, an anteroposterior and lateral neck radiograph and a posteroanterior and lateral chest radiograph are usually the initial diagnostic tests to evaluate stridor. Persistent stridor and new-onset regurgitation of formula in a 6-week-old infant prompted an escalation of the patient's workup to include a barium swallow, which subsequently showed compression of the esophagus caused by a vascular ring. In some cases direct observation with a laryngoscope or bronchoscope might be necessary to determine the cause of stridor. Indications for hospitalization of patients with stridor include stridor at rest, dyspnea, actual or suspected epiglottis, repeatedly awakening from sleep with stridor, a history of rapid progression of symptoms, toxic appearance, and apneic or cyanotic episodes. The primary care provider should be familiar with the evaluation and management for patients with the complaint of persistent or recurrent stridor.
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2/27. Goitre presenting as an oropharyngeal mass: an unusual finding in the elderly.

    Thyroid goitre presentation in the neck with extension inferiorly to the mediastinum is well-known. Extension superiorly into the retropharyngeal space is very rare and may be accompanied by change in voice and/or airway compromise. A case is described of a patient with change in voice and mild airway compromise secondary to a goitre presenting in the oropharynx. Computed tomography (CT) and physical findings are discussed with the need to recognize this rare entity.
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3/27. Aberrant cervical thymus in an infant: an unusual cause of stridor.

    We report an 8-month-old infant presenting with stridor caused by a nonpalpable neck mass discovered at imaging and surgery. The diagnosis of aberrant thymic tissue was confirmed at histopathology. The authors reviewed the literature and discuss the embryology, imaging findings and differential diagnosis of this rare disorder.
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4/27. Case report: an unusal cause of stridor in a post-liver transplant 6-year old.

    Polymorphic lymphoproliferative disorder is a recognised cause of upper airway obstruction in children [N. Sculerati, M. Arriga, Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol 99 (1990) 445-450]. It is associated with long-term immunosuppression therapy and frequently with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection [D.W. Hanto, Annu. Rev. Med. 46 (1995) 381-394; B.D. Fletcher, H.E. Heslop, H.C. Kaste, S. Bodner, Upper airway obstruction and pulmonary abnormalities due to lymphoproliferative disease following bone marrow transplantation in children, Pediatr. Radiol. 28 (1998) 492-496]. The prevalence in reported series ranges from 4 to 13% among post-transplant children [M. Ho, R. Jaffe, G. Miller, Transplantation 45 (1988) 719-727; G.B. Hammer, S. Cao, M.G. Boltz, A. Messner, anesthesiology 89 (1998) 263-265; B.V. Lattyak, P. Rosenthal, Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder presenting in the head and neck, Laryngoscope 108 (1998) 1195-1198]. This condition may present in the transplanted allograft, the gastrointestinal tract, the head and neck, and in particular in the upper airway. Previously reported cases of upper airway obstruction have been in the supraglottis, Waldeyer's ring, the glottis, and one case of an intra tracheal mass [M. Ho, R. Jaffe, G. Miller, Transplantation 45 (1988) 719-727; G.B. Hammer, S. Cao, M.G. Boltz, A. Messner, anesthesiology 89 (1998) 263-265]. We report a case of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in the sub-glottis causing acute upper airway obstruction with negative (EBV) serology.
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5/27. The radiographic evaluation of infants with stridor.

    In the elective evaluation of infant stridor, inspiratory plain radiographs of the neck and chest are routinely obtained with fluoroscopy and a barium swallow when indicated. Several factors, including patient positioning, roentgenographic technique, and the phase of respiration, may significantly alter the appearance of the airway, reducing the diagnostic accuracy of this modality and leading to misinterpretation of the pathologic changes.
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6/27. Stridor and difficult airway in an AIDS patient.

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common malignancy observed in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Although KS involves the head and neck in AIDS patients, difficult airway due to KS in an AIDS patient has rarely been reported in the literature. We report a patient with AIDS and cutaneous KS who developed inspiratory stridor and required an emergent tracheostomy. AIDS patients with cutaneous KS should have an assessment of the upper airway even in the absence of airway-related symptoms. If KS is present in the upper airway, fiber optic and/or radiologic studies are indicated to assess the extent of KS, and to define the appropriate interventions.
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7/27. An unusual cause of stridor: retropharyngeal cold abscess.

    A 15-month-old female presented with a large swelling on the left lateral aspect of the neck and respiratory distress, and stridor due to incomplete obstruction of the upper airway. A lateral x-ray film and computerized tomography scan of the cervical spine showed a retropharyngeal abscess without vertebral involvement. Aspiration and contrast revealed it to be a bilobed tubercular abscess. Planned external drainage was done after 10 days under anti-tubercular drugs.
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8/27. An unusual case of stridor after thyroidectomy.

    Twelve days after subtotal thyroidectomy, an air pocket developed in a patient's neck. The pressure in this pocket had gradually increased as small amounts of air, probably associated with coughing, came out of a tiny hole in the trachea to form a pneumocoele. This produced limited surgical emphysema, causing venous congestion and oedema of the soft tissues of the larynx, which in turn led to increasing airway obstruction. We believe that this is the first reported case of a pneumocoele that gradually increased in size, causing airway obstruction that was almost certainly due to secondary laryngeal oedema.
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9/27. Laryngeal sporotrichosis causing stridor in a young child.

    Fungal infections of the larynx are rare entities that must be considered in the differential diagnosis of the patient who presents with laryngeal symptoms. We present an unusual case of initially recurrent and then persistent stridor in a 19-month-old girl, unresponsive to 4 months of antibiotic and steroid therapy. Upon our laryngoscopic examination, the patient was noted to have an ulcerated, granulomatous process involving the larynx. She also had an erythematous papule on the left thigh. Fungal cultures of both sites grew sporothrix schenckii. The patient was treated with systemic antifungal medications and had complete resolution of her symptoms. We discuss the pathophysiology and possible source of this unusual form of sporotrichosis, the first such case reported in a child. We emphasize the role of empiric steroid therapy in exacerbating and eventually enabling dissemination of the infection. We also review the manifestations of sporotrichosis infections of the head and neck. This case demonstrates the vital importance of careful diagnosis and proper treatment of stridor in children.
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10/27. A case of idiopathic tracheal stenosis.

    Idiopathic tracheal stenosis (ITS) is an extremely rare disease. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with ITS. She had no history of previous surgery, endotracheal intubation, neck trauma, granulomatous disease, or any other severe respiratory tract infections. She presented with progressive dyspnea on effort and had been treated for bronchial asthma for 3 years. Chest radiography and laboratory examinations revealed no abnormalities. bronchoscopy demonstrated almost circumferential tracheal stenosis extending for 10 mm from about 20 mm below the vocal cords. Luminal diameter was about 4 mm at the narrowest. Bronchoscopic biopsy revealed increased fibrous tissue and chronic inflammatory cell infiltration (nonspecific inflammatory tissue). These finding are compatible with idiopathic stenosis as reported by Grillo et al. After tracheostomy, the patient was treated by tracheal segmental resection (two rings) with end-to-end anastomosis of the cartilaginous trachea. Symptoms of tracheal stenosis were completely relieved and no recurrence has been observed as of 3 years postoperatively.
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