Cases reported "Respiratory Sounds"

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1/11. An unusual case of stridor due to osteophytes of the cervical spine: (Forestier's disease).

    Stridor is a noisy breathing caused by compromised airway in the larynx and trachea. The causes can either be due to intrinsic or extrinsic compression. Stridor resulting from extrinsic compression due to anterior cervical osteophytes is rare. We report an unusual case of acute stridor due to an osteophytic mass in the cervical vertebrae resulting in a mechanical upper airway obstruction. The underlying pathology was Forestier's disease or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). Stridor is a rare manifestation of DISH and it certainly represents the most life-threatening one. Only a few cases have been reported in the English literature and are mainly secondary to impaired function of the vocal folds, or postcricoid ulceration and oedema. We present such a case, in that stridor was the result of direct airway obstruction by the osteophytic mass and an emergency tracheostomy had to be performed to establish an airway.
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2/11. An unusual cause of stridor: retropharyngeal cold abscess.

    A 15-month-old female presented with a large swelling on the left lateral aspect of the neck and respiratory distress, and stridor due to incomplete obstruction of the upper airway. A lateral x-ray film and computerized tomography scan of the cervical spine showed a retropharyngeal abscess without vertebral involvement. Aspiration and contrast revealed it to be a bilobed tubercular abscess. Planned external drainage was done after 10 days under anti-tubercular drugs.
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3/11. anaphylaxis induced by pine nuts in two young girls.

    Pine nuts are the seeds of pinus pinea. There are few reported cases of allergy to pine nut. We describe two young girls with anaphylaxis caused by small amounts of pine nuts. Specific IgE to pine nut was demonstrated by skin prick tests and RAST but no IgE to other nuts and pine pollen was detected. The patients had IgE against a pine nut protein band with apparent molecular weights of approximately 17 kDa that could be considered as the main allergen. Our patients were monosensitized to pine nut and the 17-kDa protein could be correlated with the severe clinical symptoms.
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4/11. Anomalous left coronary artery masquerading as infantile bronchiolitis.

    Four infants less than six months of age with anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery who present with symptoms of wheezing are described. All had cardiomegaly on chest radiographs and because of wheezing received beta-agonist agents (albuterol alone or with epinephrine). One developed cardiopulmonary collapse secondary to supraventricular tachycardia after administration of these agents. The literature is reviewed for utility of chest radiographs in infants presenting with wheezing and for the efficacy of beta-adrenergic agents in infants less than six months of age. The authors suggest that physicians have a low threshold for obtaining a chest radiograph prior to treating a first-time wheezing infant less than six months of age with a beta-agonist agent.
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5/11. Massive tongue swelling following the use of synthetic saliva.

    A 5-year-old boy with cerebral palsy and severe learning difficulties developed massive tongue swelling of sudden onset following the use of synthetic saliva. Acute airway obstruction and severe stridor ensued which required tracheal intubation and transfer to paediatric intensive care. The child was treated with intravenous steroids, antihistamines and epinephrine. With cessation of synthetic saliva, the swelling gradually resolved and the child was extubated on day 5.
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6/11. Stridor after ingestion of dettol and domestos.

    Dettol (4.8% chloroxylenol, 9% pine oil and 12% isopropyl alcohol) has previously been reported to cause delayed upper airway obstruction when ingested, despite the product being labelled as non-poisonous. Domestos (1-5% sodium hypochlorite) is used as a household and toilet cleaner. This paper reports a rare case in which both agents were consumed together in significant quantities, and caused stridor and impending airway obstruction requiring endotracheal intubation in the emergency department. patients who have ingested this combination of cleaning agents are at high risk of acute airway compromise, and should have expert upper airway evaluation and control as soon as possible after admission.
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7/11. eucalyptus as a specific irritant causing vocal cord dysfunction.

    BACKGROUND: vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is a well-recognized clinical entity that frequently mimics asthma and is characterized by inappropriate adduction of the vocal cords during inspiration. The pathogenesis of VCD has not yet been defined. The only previous report suggested that respiratory irritants may trigger paradoxical motion of the vocal cords. OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a 46-year-old woman with VCD precipitated by eucalyptus exposure. methods: A masked flexible fiberoptic nasolaryngoscopy was performed to confirm whether VCD occurred with eucalyptus and not with other known respiratory irritants. The patient underwent inhalation challenges consisting of water, ammonia, pine oil, and a combination of eucalyptus (dried leaves) and ammonia. Two independent observers before patient challenge could not identify eucalyptus. RESULTS: Vocal cord dysfunction occurred within minutes of exposure to eucalyptus. This is the first report to prospectively document that a specific irritant, eucalyptus, can precipitate VCD. Negative skin prick test results, total IgE level, and negative IgE eucalyptus-specific antibodies support a nonimmunologic mechanism. CONCLUSIONS: A new pathogenic mechanism for this clinical entity is supported by our observations. Furthermore, a nonimmunologic mechanism in which respiratory irritants may induce VCD is suspected. Future studies to elucidate this mechanism need to be performed in individuals with irritant-specific VCD.
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8/11. Stridor and dysphagia in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).

    As otolaryngologists, we are the first consulted for stridor and dysphagia. One must consider both extrinsic and intrinsic etiologies in the differential diagnosis of these symptoms. We report a series of patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) who presented with stridor or dysphagia. We describe the initial presenting symptoms, physical examination/radiographic findings, and discuss the management options. Traditional teaching is that surgery is rarely indicated for DISH of the cervical spine. Recommendations regarding the role of surgery as well as a review of our surgical experience are discussed.
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9/11. Right-sided aortic arch presenting as refractory intraoperative and postoperative wheezing.

    A 29-year-old woman presented with severe refractory intraoperative wheezing and airflow limitation that resolved spontaneously. Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scan of the thorax confirmed a right-sided aortic arch. Variable intrathoracic large airway obstruction that worsened markedly when the patient was in a supine position and slightly more following intravascular volume expansion was shown on flow-volume studies. We postulate the right-sided aortic arch caused airflow obstruction that worsened intraoperatively because of position and intravenous fluids.
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10/11. The anaesthetic management of an infant with frontometaphyseal dysplasia (Gorlin-Cohen syndrome).

    We describe an infant with frontometaphyseal dysplasia, who presented to us twice for anaesthesia for orthopaedic surgery. These patients have facial asymmetry, mandibular hypoplasia, bradycardia, restrictive lung disease, primary pulmonary hypertension, skeletal abnormalities and difficult endotracheal intubation. The patient also showed laryngeal stridor because of laryngomalacia, vocal cord paralysis and subglottic stenosis. light premedication along with atropine, ECG and blood pressure monitoring, gradual inhalational induction and intubation of the spontaneously breathing patient, careful positioning and postoperative CPAP are recommended.
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