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1/58. Sequential MRI, SPECT and PET in respiratory syncytial virus encephalitis.

    We report on a 3-year-old girl with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) encephalitis manifested by disturbance of consciousness, conjugate eye deviation, anuria, truncal ataxia and intention tremor. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hyperintense areas in the cerebellar cortex. No lesion was detected in the cerebral cortex, pons or spinal cord. The hyperintense areas in the cerebellar cortex diminished with recovery from the clinical manifestations and had resolved 2 months after onset. The MRI lesions in the cerebellum were considered to be due to oedema. SPECT and positron emission tomography (PET), performed 3 months after onset, disclosed areas of hypoperfusion and hypometabolism at the same sites. One year after onset, MRI showed mild atrophy of the cerebellum. Hypoperfusion on SPECT and hypometabolism on PET remained. neuroimaging showed that ataxia and tremor in this case were the result of cerebellitis. The patient has no neurological deficit except for mild truncal ataxia. This patient is a rare example of RSV encephalitis.
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keywords = virus
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2/58. Surfactant replacement therapy in RSV-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with severe respiratory syncytial virus infection is rare. We report a 5-month-old Indian girl who was admitted to our intensive care ward with severe respiratory failure who fulfilled the criteria for ARDS using both Murray's lung injury Score of > 2.5 and the American-European consensus Conference definition for ARDS. She developed diffuse bilateral alveolar infiltrates, severe hypoxaemia (PaO2/FiO2 < 100) and required high PEEP (> 15 cm H2O) 24 hours after admission. RSV was isolated from her nasopharyngeal secretion. She also had clinical features suggestive of a primary immunodeficiency and had laboratory evidence of combined T and B cell defect. There was unsustained clinical improvement with a dose of surfactant administered at 36 hours of PICU stay, and she continued to deteriorate and succumbed after 19 days in the PICU.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = virus
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3/58. Pulmonary failure after Norwood procedure: indication for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation? A case report.

    Today some authors consider univentricular repair a contraindication for postoperative cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The question is whether or not ECMO is indicated as pulmonary support in case of an overwhelming pulmonary infection during the postoperative course after a Norwood procedure. During the prolonged weaning period after a Norwood procedure using a 4 mm aortopulmonary shunt, proven respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis occurred at the time of expected weaning from artificial ventilation. Venovenous ECMO was able to improve oxygenation, but when pulmonary opacification failed to resolve, ECMO was terminated after 12 days.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = virus
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4/58. bronchiectasis and bronchiolitis obliterans post respiratory syncytial virus infection: think again.

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infections are common, yet long-term sequelae in previously healthy infants and children are rarely reported. We report a child who developed bronchiectasis and bronchiolitis obliterans following an RSV lower respiratory tract infection but in whom adenovirus was detected on stored serum. Co-infection with adenovirus is the likely cause for the bronchiectasis and bronchiolitis obliterans.
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ranking = 1.4
keywords = virus
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5/58. The pharmacologic mechanism by which inhaled epinephrine reduces airway obstruction in respiratory syncytial virus-associated bronchiolitis.

    Inhaled racemic epinephrine relieves airway obstruction in patients with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. The contribution of alpha- versus beta-adrenoreceptor stimulation toward this clinical effect is unknown. We describe an infant treated with propranolol for supraventricular tachycardia in whom respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis developed. Inhaled racemic epinephrine improved his respiratory symptoms, whereas nebulized albuterol did not.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = virus
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6/58. Reactive hemophagocytic syndrome presenting as a component of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: To report two cases of severe reactive hemophagocytic syndrome (RHS), to discuss their impact, and to present evidence that RHS may be a constitutive part of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). DESIGN: Case-report. SETTING: Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). patients: Two patients with RHS and MODS. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Case #1: A 3 yr-old boy with Mucha-Haberman syndrome (pityriasis lichenoides) was admitted to the PICU for septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, capillary leak, acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, and RHS (pancytopenia and hemophagocytosis on bone marrow aspirate). The pancytopenia was severe (white blood cell count, 0.9 x 10(9)/L; hemoglobin, 59 g/L; platelets, 36 x 10(9)/L), required many transfusions, and resolved 2 months later. The patient needed mechanical ventilation for 6 wks. length of stay in PICU was 2 months. Case #2: A previously healthy 4 yr-old girl was admitted to the PICU for respiratory failure. She developed acute respiratory distress syndrome, cardiomyopathy with complete atrioventricular block, shock, capillary leak, liver dysfunction, and RHS (pancytopenia and hemophagocytosis on bone marrow aspirate). The pancytopenia was severe (white blood cell count, 1.92 x 10(9)/L; hemoglobin, 65 g/L; platelets, 58 x 10(9)/L) and necessitated transfusional support. serology for respiratory syncytial virus was positive. RHS duration was 20 days; the patient recovered completely. Length of mechanical ventilation was 16 days and length of stay in PICU was 3 wks. CONCLUSIONS: These cases show that RHS may be a significant cause of pancytopenia in the PICU. It needs to be recognized as a clinical entity because it can be reversible and nonneoplastic. RHS and MODS share some pathophysiologic elements and could be related to each other.
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keywords = virus
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7/58. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in patients with phagocyte defects.

    patients with phagocyte defects frequently develop bacterial or fungal pneumonias, but they are not considered to be at increased risk for viral infections. We describe 3 patients with known phagocyte immunodeficiencies who developed lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). All 3 patients had dense pneumonias as indicated by computed tomography scan of the lungs and RSV was recovered. We conclude that RSV can present as a dense pneumonia in patients with phagocyte defects. Along with common pathogens causing LRTI, RSV should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Viral cultures as well as rapid antigen detection assays for respiratory viruses should be included in the evaluation of LRTI in patients with phagocyte defects. respiratory syncytial virus, phagocyte, immunodeficiency, pneumonia.
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ranking = 1.4
keywords = virus
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8/58. Donor lymphocyte infusion for treatment of life-threatening respiratory syncytial virus infection following bone marrow transplantation.

    We describe two patients who developed respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonia after BMT. One died of RSV pneumonia after three courses of steroid pulse therapy. Surprisingly, RSV antigen was identified in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) obtained post mortem. Steroid pulse therapy might have suppressed anti-RSV immunity, leading to persistent RSV infection for more than 1 month. The other patient received donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) for relapsed plasma cell leukemia, while having active RSV pneumonia. His respiratory condition improved after DLI, and RSV antigen disappeared in BALF and nasal swabs. DLI might be effective in cases of life-threatening RSV pneumonia.
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9/58. weaning to extubation directly from high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in an infant with cystic lung disease and persistent air leak: a strategy for lung protection.

    We report the successful weaning and extubation of an infant from a SensorMedics 3100A high-frequency oscillator without returning to conventional ventilation. A 7-week-old term infant with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis complicated by cystic pulmonary lesions repeatedly failed attempts to return to conventional ventilation from high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) for weaning, because of recurrent pneumothoraces. A computed tomography of the chest revealed multiple well defined cysts of various sizes involving both lungs. Therefore, weaning to extubation from HFOV was proposed as a way of preventing further air leak. The weaning strategy consisted of a technique we refer to as "sprinting." Using this method, the patient was successfully extubated directly from HFOV, with no complications. A follow-up computed tomography of the chest showed marked improvement in the size of the cystic lesions. The patient was discharged home with no need for home oxygen therapy.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = virus
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10/58. Encephalopathy associated with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.

    Respiratory syncytial virus is an extremely common cause of childhood respiratory infections resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Although apnea is a well-known complication in young infants with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis, the encephalopathy associated with this infection is not well recognized. Our study reveals an incidence of encephalopathy of 1.8% in a total of 487 patients with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis studied over a period of almost 4 years. seizures were the presenting complication. Based on our study of a cohort of children with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis, we believe that neurologic complications, although relatively uncommon, represent a significant component of this common childhood illness. Furthermore, respiratory syncytial virus has been shown to release several mediators that could directly or indirectly be neurotoxic and induce an encephalopathy associated with the respiratory illness.
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ranking = 1.8
keywords = virus
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