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1/29. De novo complete trisomy 5p: clinical report and FISH studies.

    We describe a de novo trisomy 5p in a 1-year-old severely retarded boy. The complete short arm of chromosome 5 segregated as an additional marker chromosome in all metaphases. The marker was identified as 5p by conventional cytogenetic techniques (GTG, GBG, CBG) and molecular cytogenetic techniques (whole chromosome-painting probe, probes for the cri-du-chat region and the centromere, and additionally high-resolution multicolor banding using a chromosome 5-specific dna probe cocktail). The clinical findings were similar to the established trisomy 5p phenotype including macrocephaly, facial abnormalities, tracheobronchial defects with subsequent respiratory infections, hypotonia, and psychomotor retardation. To the best of our knowledge this is the first description of an isolated complete 5p trisomy without involvement of the aberrant chromosome in any structural chromosomal rearrangements. ( info)

2/29. trisomy 19 q.

    Two sibs with trisomy for the long arm of chromosome 19 are reported. The common features included flat facial profile with microcephaly, hypertelorism, ptosis, prominence of the glabella, small nose with anteverted nostrils and a characteristic fish-shaped mouth. In addition congenital heart disease, physical retardation and seizures were seen in both sibs. That tristomy 19q can be suspected clinically is emphasized. ( info)

3/29. Combination of renal agenesis with respiratory and alimentary tract atresia results in normal lung development.

    The VACTERL complex comprises renal agenesis and atresias of the alimentary and respiratory tracts. We report on a case with this combination causing severe oligohydramnios but with normal lung development. The likely protective mechanism for pulmonary development was an increase in alveolar pressure and reduced alveolar fluid loss due to the esophageal-tracheal malformation. This suggests the possible treatment of oligohydramnios by tracheal occlusion. ( info)

4/29. Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome and airway reconstruction: an evolving paradigm.

    OBJECTIVES: To refine the classic definition of, and provide a working definition for, congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) and to discuss the various aspects of long-term airway reconstruction, including the range of laryngeal anomalies and the various techniques for reconstruction. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. patients: Four children (age range, 2-8 years) with CHAOS who presented to a single tertiary care children's hospital for pediatric airway reconstruction between 1995 and 2000. CONCLUSIONS: To date, CHAOS remains poorly described in the otolaryngologic literature. We propose the following working definition for pediatric cases of CHAOS: any neonate who needs a surgical airway within 1 hour of birth owing to high upper airway (ie, glottic, subglottic, or upper tracheal) obstruction and who cannot be tracheally intubated other than through a persistent tracheoesophageal fistula. Therefore, CHAOS has 3 possible presentations: (1) complete laryngeal atresia without an esophageal fistula, (2) complete laryngeal atresia with a tracheoesophageal fistula, and (3) near-complete high upper airway obstruction. Management of the airway, particularly in regard to long-term reconstruction, in children with CHAOS is complex and challenging. ( info)

5/29. Horseshoe lung: useful angiographic and bronchographic images using multidetector-row spiral CT in two infants.

    Horseshoe lung is a rare congenital pulmonary anomaly of childhood that can be accompanied with other anomalies. The diagnosis has historically been accomplished with invasive catheter angiography and bronchography rather than CT. Two infants with horseshoe lung were recently diagnosed with CT. We report the imaging findings in these two patients with emphasis on angiographic and bronchographic demonstration of key abnormalities of horseshoe lung using multidetector-row spiral CT. ( info)

6/29. Monocephalus diprosopus, a rare form of conjoined twins, and associated congenital anomalies.

    Craniofacial duplication (diprosopus) is a rare form of conjoined twins. A case of monocephalus diprosopus with anencephaly, cervicothoracolumbar rachischisis, and duplication of the respiratory tract and upper gastrointestinal tract is reported. The cardiovascular system remained single but the heart showed transposition of the great vessels. We present this case due to its rarity, and compare our pathologic findings with those already reported. ( info)

7/29. Camptomelic dwarfism. Report of a case and review of the salient features.

    A typical case of camptomelic dwarfism exhibits the characteristic clinical features of: rhizomelic dwarfism, anterior bowing of the tibia with cutaneous dimpling, talipes equinovarus, peculiar facies with micrognathia and characteristically death in the first 6 weeks of life. ( info)

8/29. The successful management of congenital laryngeal web with endoscopic lysis and topical mitomycin-C.

    Laryngeal web is a rare congenital anomaly. The primary goals of management for congenital laryngeal web are to provide a patent airway and to achieve a good voice quality. However, vocal cords have a tendency for fibrosis and granulation tissue formation after surgical interventions. Traditionally, the treatment of choice for laryngeal web is laryngofissure and placement of a stent or keel. This report presents the successful management of a congenital laryngeal web in a 10-month-old boy with endoscopic lysis and topical mitomycin-C application. ( info)

9/29. Bronchial atresia associated with spontaneous pneumothorax: report of a case.

    A 32-yr-old male patient with recurrent pneumothorax associated with bronchial atresia of the subsegmental branch of the posterior segmental bronchus of the right upper lobe was successfully treated with right upper lobectomy. Before surgery, the bronchial atresia with pneumothorax was suspected on the chest radiograph and CT scans, which showed the findings of bronchocele with localized hyperinflation of the right upper lobe. The examination of surgical specimen from the resected right upper lobe suggests that the cause of the recurrent pneumothorax was the rupture of the subpleural bullae in the hyperinflated lung segment distal to the atretic bronchus. ( info)

10/29. Tracheal agenesis: management of the first 10 months of life.

    Tracheal agenesis is a potentially lethal congenital anomaly, appearing only at birth. We describe a newborn preterm infant who presented with immediate respiratory distress and no audible cry. There was almost complete tracheal agenesis with a very short segment of distal trachea (only two tracheal rings) arising from the anterior wall of the esophagus, before dividing into the mainstem bronchi. The anomaly was unsuspected prenatally, as the scan showed pyloric atresia and complex congenital cardiac disease. Despite the patient's difficult course, with correction of the rare-associated malformations (cardiac and gastrointestinal tract anomalies), the fact that the child is lively and neurologically normal for her age, requires that we now consider the patency of the airway and the possibility of surgical correction, in accordance with a good quality of life. ( info)
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