Cases reported "Respiratory Tract Fistula"

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1/20. Cholelithoptysis and pleural empyema.

    We report a case of delayed cholelithoptysis and pleural empyema caused by gallstone spillage at the time of laparoscopic cholecystecomy. An occult subphrenic abscess developed, and the patient became symptomatic only after trans-diaphragmatic penetration occurred. This resulted in expectoration of bile, gallstones, and pus. Spontaneous decompression of the empyema occurred because of a peritoneo-pleuro-bronchial fistula. This is the first case of such managed nonoperatively and provides support for the importance of intraoperative retrieval of spilled gallstones at the time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
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2/20. Anaesthetic management for a left pneumonectomy in a child with bronchopleural fistula.

    The anaesthetic management of a left pneumonectomy in a 18-month-old girl with a bronchopleural fistula is described. An ordinary tracheal tube was slit at the bevel to ensure upper lobe ventilation on right endobronchial intubation. A combination of a bronchial blocker, endobronchial intubation with a slit tube, and nerve blocks for these manoeuvres was used. pain relief by a thoracic epidural block ensured good physiotherapy and a comfortable postoperative period.
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3/20. Gastropleural fistula as complication of postpneumonectomy empyema.

    A 54-year-old woman underwent a left pneumonectomy for monolateral congenital pulmonary cysts, complicated by a pleural empyema without bronchial fistula, in the late postoperative period. The pleural empyema was evacuated and managed by means of a small thoracic drainage. Three months after discharge the patient noticed the presence of ingesta in the pleural washing fluid. Diagnostic and operative procedures in this rare case of non malignant, non traumatic gastropleural fistula are described.
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4/20. Two cases of benign tracheo-gastric fistula following esophagectomy for cancer.

    Two successfully managed cases of esophageal replacement for cancer complicated by neoesophagotracheal fistula are described. In both cases radical esophagectomy with a gastric pull-up was performed. In the postoperative period different complications necessitated prolonged ventilatory support and tracheostomy. In both cases a tracheo-gastric fistula developed probably because of the ischaemic effort of the tracheostomy tube and the nasogastric tube. At single stage repairs, the fistulae were divided and the gastric defects were closed directly. In the first case resection of four strictured tracheal rings and tracheal anastomosis had to be performed. In the second case the fistula was recognized earlier and stricture did not develop. The defect on the membranous trachea was patched with autologous fascia lata graft. A left pectoralis major muscle flap was interposed between the trachea and the pulled up stomach in both cases to prevent recurrence of the fistula. Treatment of this potentially life-threatening and rare condition yielded excellent results.
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5/20. The dental management of a patient with a cocaine-induced maxillofacial defect: a case report.

    There are several dental complications associated with cocaine abuse, including adverse reactions to dental anesthetics, post-operative bleeding, and cellulitis, which can lead to necrosis of orbital, nasal, and palatal bones. Following is a report of the initial treatment rendered to a patient who had destroyed most of her hard palate over a ten-year period of cocaine abuse. There are no classic socio-economic or educational profiles for abusers of cocaine. Drug abuse victims may present as patients in any dental office. Though there are certain classic physiological and psychological symptoms of their condition, they may not display symptoms at all.
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6/20. Subarachnoid-pleural fistula treated with noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. Case report.

    The authors describe the case of a 24-year-old man who underwent an L-1 corpectomy for spinal decompression and stabilization following an injury that caused an L-1 burst fracture. Postoperatively, an accumulation of spinal fluid developed in the pleural space, which was refractory to 1 week of thoracostomy tube drainage and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion. The authors then initiated a regimen of positive-pressure ventilation in which a bilevel positive airway pressure (PAP) mask was used. After 5 days, the CSF collection in the pleural space resolved. Use of a bilevel PAP mask represents a safe, noninvasive method of reducing the negative intrathoracic pressure that promotes CSF leakage into the pleural cavity and may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of subarachnoid-pleural fistula.
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7/20. Endobronchial closure of postoperative bronchopleural fistula using vascular occluding coils and n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate.

    We report herein 2 patients with intractable postoperative bronchopleural fistula with empyema after lobectomy or subsegmentectomy. The patients underwent several treatments including thoracotomy, but the fistula closure was not successful. Finally, the bronchopleural fistula was successfully treated by endobronchial closure using vascular occluding coils and n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (Histoacryl).
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8/20. Surgical treatment for right pleural effusions caused by pancreaticopleural fistula.

    A 56-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented with exertional dyspnea. A chest radiography showed a massive right pleural effusion with sanguineous pleural fluid and an amylase level of 97,188 IU/L. Despite conservative treatment with no oral intake, total parenteral nutrition and repeated thoracentesis, the pleural effusion was persistent and intrathoracic infection was suspected. Surgical intervention was proposed and a preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed disruption of the mid pancreatic duct and a fistulous tract. A middle segment pancreatectomy was performed for removal of the disrupted portion of the main pancreatic duct and reconstruction of the distal pancreas was completed by end-to-side Rouxen-Y pancreatojejunostomy. The patient had a good postoperative course and was discharged on the 29th postoperative day. He has remained well during the 9 months of follow-up.
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9/20. Suspicion of prenatal pyriform sinus cyst and fistula: a case report.

    There has been no report describing suspected prenatal pyriform sinus (PS) cyst and fistula. We report a case suspected by prenatal ultrasonography and fetal MRI. A large cystic mass was found in the left neck of the fetus. After the baby was born, preoperative laryngoscopic catheterization of the fistula tract was used to confirm the diagnosis and greatly facilitated the identification and excision of the PS cyst and fistula.
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10/20. Transposition of modified latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap in the treatment of persistent bronchopleural fistula after posterolateral incision.

    The condition of a 51-year-old man was complicated with empyema and bronchopleural fistula (BPF) after left upper lobectomy and thoracoplasty for pulmonary aspergillosis. On the postoperative day (POD) 12, the opened bronchial stump was directly closed and covered with a pedicled pectoralis major muscle flap. On POD 66, an open-window thoracostomy was done, because of empyema with pseudomonas aeruginosa Two years later, we could fill the empyema cavity, and close the multiple BPFs with the transposition of a modified pedicled musculocutaneous (MC) flap and the additional thoracoplasty to gain good quality of life. Although the MC flap was a proximal part of the latissimus dorsi muscle, which was dissected along the posterolateral incision of the first operation, it could be successfully transplanted to cover the BPFs in the open-window. In some patients with a small open-window on the upper anterior chest wall, the pedicled proximal latissimus dorsi MC flap may be very useful for treating persistent BPFs even after a standard posterolateral incision.
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