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1/8. The multiple facets of pulmonary sequestration.

    PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to identify the proportion of sequestrations that were atypical or associated with other entities, such as congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations, communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformations, bronchogenic cyst, and scimitar syndrome. methods: All charts of patients with pulmonary sequestration admitted at 2 children's hospitals from 1982 to July 1999 were reviewed retrospectively. The authors included all anomalies with a systemic arterial supply or without bronchial connection. RESULTS: Only 22 of the 39 patients (56%) had a classic isolated extralobar or intralobar sequestration, whereas the others presented with a spectrum of anomalies. Of the 13 cases diagnosed prenatally, 85% were asymptomatic at birth. In contrast, 26 cases diagnosed postnatally were all symptomatic, with those patients less than 2 weeks old presenting with various degrees of respiratory distress, and those older than 2 weeks old presenting with respiratory infections. The correct diagnosis was made preoperatively in 59% of cases. Only 4 patients did not undergo resection of their lesion, of which, 1 underwent interventional radiology with embolization of the anomalous arterial supply. Follow-up issues of importance included pneumonia, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux, and pectus excavatum. CONCLUSIONS: Sequestrations represent a spectrum of anomalies that overlap with other lung lesions. To facilitate management, they should be described according to their (1) connection to the tracheobronchial tree, (2) visceral pleura, (3) arterial supply, (4) venous drainage, (5) foregut communication, (6) histology, (7) mixed/multiple lesions, and (8) whether there are associated anomalies. Surgeons should be aware that approximately 50% of sequestrations could be atypical or associated with other anomalies. This should be kept in mind when weighing the benefits of resection versus conservative management of pulmonary sequestrations.
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2/8. Aspergillus laryngotracheobronchial infection in a 6-year-old girl following bone marrow transplantation.

    Localised fungal infection of the larynx and tracheobronchial tree is extremely uncommon. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl with acute lymphocytic leukaemia, who developed symptoms of upper airways obstruction 6 months after a cord blood transplant. bronchoscopy showed a pale plaque lesion in the larynx and tracheobronchial tree. aspergillus fumigatus was cultured from a biopsy of the lesion. The patient was treated successfully with a prolonged course of amphotericin b and assessed with multiple surveillance bronchoscopies.
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3/8. Multiple airway abnormalities in a patient with rothmund-thomson syndrome.

    rothmund-thomson syndrome (RTS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by skin manifestations, juvenile cataracts, and extracutaneous manifestations. The presence of congenital airway abnormalities has not previously been documented in rothmund-thomson syndrome. We report the case of a child with rothmund-thomson syndrome suffering from multiple airway abnormalities. Our case highlights the importance of suspecting multiple airway abnormalities in any child with respiratory distress with other systemic anomalies. This necessitates meticulous anatomical and dynamic examination of the laryngotracheo-broncheal tree.
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4/8. Surgical emphysema: a rare presentation of foreign body inhalation.

    An 11-year-old girl with an almond lodging in the tracheobronchial tree is described. She presented with an uncommon symptom of subcutaneous emphysema The x-ray revealed left-sided pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. Intercostal drain was inserted, but she developed respiratory failure and was ventilated. After initial stabilization for 60 hours, she deteriorated again and her x-ray revealed right-sided collapse. After removal of the foreign body, she was discharged but presented again with stridor necessitating tracheostomy. tracheal stenosis was found and required end-to-end anastomosis. The authors feel that, while foreign bodies are uncommon in this age group with emphysema as a rarer manifestation, this cause should be kept in mind, even in the absence of forthcoming history. A high index of suspicion for tracheobronchial foreign body is required in atypical presentations of acute pediatric respiratory distress.
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5/8. herpes simplex virus infection of the adult lower respiratory tract.

    We have reported six adult patients with HSV infection of the lower respiratory tract diagnosed ante-mortem, and have reviewed the literature on this subject. An attempt has been made to define the natural history of the infection, and suggestions have been made regarding diagnosis and treatment. HSV can infect the lower respiratory tract in immunologically normal patients, as well as the immunocompromised host. Many patients have been burned, or intubated, or have other reasons for squamous metaplasia of the respiratory epithelium. The pathogenesis in many cases is an extension or aspiration of oropharyngeal HSV, but there is a suggestion that some cases may be hematogenously spread. The diagnosis of the site and presence of HSV infection should be based initially on cytologic findings, histologic findings, or both. Viral cultures or immunofluorescent or immunoperoxidase labeling can be used to confirm the cytologic and histologic diagnoses. bronchoscopy is valuable for visualizing ulcerations or membranes in the respiratory tract, and for improving the sensitivity and specificity of the cytologic diagnosis. Because the process is most often focused in the tracheobronchial tree, percutaneous needle biopsy and open lung biopsy may be less sensitive than bronchoscopy. Standard serologic tests are, in general, not helpful diagnostically. They can help verify that a recent HSV infection has occurred, but do not differentiate between primary and recurrent infection, and do not help in localizing the site of infection. However, paired complement fixation or neutralizing antibody titers may be useful prognostically. If the titers do not rise in the presence of a documented HSV lower respiratory tract infection, the outcome is more likely to be fatal. The respiratory epithelium from the oral mucosa to the alveoli can be infected with HSV. The manifestations can range from a few scattered ulcers in the trachea to a severe ulcerative process resulting in an obstructing, inflammatory tracheobronchial membrane. Focal or diffuse pneumonia can also occur. No specific treatment for the illness can be recommended at this time. There is no evidence that currently available antiviral therapy is effective. The outcome of the illness seems to be largely dependent on the immunologic status of the host, complicating superinfections, and the progression of the underlying disease.
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6/8. Tracheal compression as a cause of respiratory symptoms after repair of oesophageal atresia.

    A case of tracheal compression in an infant after repair of a tracheo-oesophageal fistula and oesophageal atresia is reported. Tracheopexy completely relieved the symptoms of apnoeic attacks, cyanosis, and convulsions. We suggest that tracheal compression in infants and children with repaired oesophgeal atresia can not only cause life-threatening attacks but also be responsible for recurrent chest infections. All infants and children with signs and symptoms of tracheal compression as shown by the presence of a barking type of cough, recurrent chest infections, or persistent mild respiratory symptoms should be referred for thorough investigation of the tracheobronchial tree.
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7/8. Tracheobronchiomegaly: report of two cases with widely differing symptomatology.

    Two cases of tracheobronchiomegaly are reported to call attention to this disease. physicians must be mindful of this entity as another cause of recurring pneumonia which may be treatable. Various proposed etiologies for this syndrome are reviewed. The findings in and interpretation of our cases and those in the literature suggest that tracheobronchiomegaly is a congenital anomaly differing from others of the tracheobronchial tree because of its spectacular radiological appearance. The two following cases typify different presentations of this syndrome. One is largely asymptomatic; the other demonstrates super-infection of stagnant secretions, making the patient functionally bronchiectacic with progressive suppurative pulmonary destruction. The authors believe that aggressive management designed to mobilize airway secretions is indicated. There is usually no place for surgery in this disease beyond establishing the diagnosis.
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8/8. Radioiodine bronchogram in acute respiratory tract infection.

    In this article, the authors described a 31-year-old woman with differentiated thyroid cancer is presented who had radioiodine uptake in the distribution of the tracheobronchial tree in association with symptoms of an acute respiratory tract infection. As expected, the uptake was transient and disappeared on the follow-up scan performed after 10 days of antibiotic treatment
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