Cases reported "Respirovirus Infections"

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1/52. Outbreak of Hendra-like virus--malaysia and singapore, 1998-1999.

    During September 29, 1998-April 4, 1999, 229 cases of febrile encephalitis (111 [48%] fatal) were reported to the Malaysian Ministry of health (MOH). During March 13-19, 1999, nine cases of similar encephalitic illnesses (one fatal) and two cases of respiratory illness occurred among abattoir workers in singapore. Tissue culture isolation identified a previously unknown infectious agent from ill patients. This report summarizes the preliminary epidemiologic and laboratory investigations of these cases, which indicate that a previously unrecognized paramyxovirus related to, but distinct from, the Australian hendra virus is associated with this outbreak. ( info)

2/52. meningoencephalitis caused by a novel paramyxovirus: an advanced MRI case report in an emerging disease.

    Eleven abattoir workers in singapore were infected in March 1999 by an outbreak caused by the nipah virus. This newly discovered, Hendra-like paramyxovirus causes acute infection of the CNS. We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) findings in a patient suffering from acute meningoencephalitis. Multiple small white matter lesions were detected on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and T2-weighted images. There were no abnormalities detected on MRS. We believe this to be the first reported MRI findings in this novel zoonotic viral disease. ( info)

3/52. guillain-barre syndrome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    guillain-barre syndrome is a rare complication in the setting of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We report three children with T cell lymphoma/leukemia in whom this syndrome developed soon after they received unrelated donor transplants. The rapid onset of symptoms raises the concern that the bone marrow transplant conditioning regimen (ie, total body irradiation, cyclophosphamide and cytosine arabinoside) might have precipitated the clinical syndrome of ascending polyneuropathy. Although central nervous system toxicity has been well described with high-dose cytosine arabinoside therapy, peripheral neuropathy of the Guillain-Barre type has been reported only infrequently. We review possible factors contributing to the development of this syndrome in these three patients. ( info)

4/52. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after para-influenza infection post bone marrow transplantation.

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a parainfectious or postvaccination demyelinating condition, characterized by rapid onset of multifocal neurological deficits, usually occurring in childhood or adolescence. We report case of ADEM in an allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipient, who presented with rapid onset of paraplegia and widespread neurological deficits 6 weeks after parainfluenza pneumonia. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed typical features of ADEM, involving the subcortical white matter, brain steam and spinal cord. There was a rapid and complete response to pulse high-dose corticosteriod and intravenous immunoglobulin. The importance of recognition and early treatment of this rare condition in transplantation practice is emphasized. ( info)

5/52. Emerging viral infections in australia.

    hendra virus infection should be suspected in someone with close association with horses or bats who presents acutely with pneumonia or encephalitis (potentially after a prolonged incubation period). Australian bat lyssavirus infection should be suspected in a patient with a progressive neurological illness and a history of exposure to a bat. rabies vaccine and immunoglobulin should be strongly considered after a bite, scratch or mucous membrane exposure to a bat. Japanese encephalitis vaccine should be considered for people intending to reside in or visit endemic areas of southern or eastern asia for more than 30 days. ( info)

6/52. Human parainfluenza virus giant cell pneumonia following cord blood transplant associated with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    Giant cell pneumonia secondary to human parainfluenza virus 3 has been reported only rarely in immunocompromised hosts. The few cases documented after bone marrow transplant have resulted in significant morbidity and mortality. To our knowledge, this entity has not been described following umbilical cord blood transplant. pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, a rare condition that has been reported with increasing frequency in association with immunocompromise and infections, has not been documented in the setting of either umbilical cord blood transplant or human parainfluenza viral infection. We report what we believe is the first documented case of giant cell pneumonia caused by human parainfluenza virus 3 in an umbilical cord blood transplant recipient. To our knowledge, a unique associated feature of this case, a pulmonary alveolar proteinosis-like reaction, has not been reported previously in association with human parainfluenza virus pneumonia. ( info)

7/52. Treatment of acute pulmonary failure with extracorporeal support: 100% survival in a pediatric population.

    Since February 1990, five children, aged 10 days to 6.5 years, were treated with extracorporeal lung support at our hospital for acute, unrelenting pulmonary failure. Two had viral pneumonia: one with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis, and one with herpes simplex virus pneumonia, encephalitis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. One presented with a febrile illness followed by a pulmonary hemorrhage. Two patients had adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) complicating severe systemic illnesses, toxic epidermal necrolysis in one and cat scratch disease with encephalitis in the other. All children had diffuse parenchymal lung disease by chest x-ray. On maximum medical management all patients were developing carbon dioxide retention and progressive hypoxemia, exceeding previously established NIH study criteria for extracorporeal treatment. Three children (10 days, 2 months, 13 months) were placed on venoarterial support and two children (20 months and 6.5 years) were placed on venovenous extracorporeal support (ECCO2R). Three of the five had open lung biopsies performed, which showed findings consistent with a moderate to severe cellular phase of ARDS. No viral inclusions were found in the patient with RSV infection. One hundred percent immediate survival was achieved in this patient population. Average duration of support was 330 hours (range, 89 to 840). Following completion of extracorporeal support, all children were successfully weaned from the ventilator with an average time to extubation of 23.2 days (range, 2 to 58 days). One child died of congestive heart failure following palliative surgery for a complex noncyanotic congenital cardiac lesion 35 days after successfully weaning from extracorporeal support for an acute febrile illness and pulmonary hemorrhage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ( info)

8/52. Parainfluenza virus 3 infection pre- and post-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: re-infection or persistence?

    BACKGROUND: A 5-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) received a haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) from his father and was monitored for the presence of respiratory viruses. STUDY DESIGN: Nasal washes were taken during the transplant period and tested by culture and real-time PCR. RESULTS: Fifteen days prior to transplant parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) was isolated by culture and confirmed by immunofluoresence (IF) from a nasal wash specimen. Subsequent samples were negative by both IF and culture so the pre-transplant conditioning was started. One week after the HSCT the patient developed respiratory symptoms which progressively deteriorated. The IF and culture for PIV3 became positive again only after the symptoms deteriorated. However, retrospectively, a real-time PCR assay showed that the PIV3 was detectable throughout the conditioning phase and the amount of virus increased at the time of reappearance of respiratory symptoms post-HSCT. CONCLUSIONS: Management of PIV3 infection is important in HSCT. The use of this real-time PCR assay could improve diagnosis and management of PIV3 infection. ( info)

9/52. Respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia in a lung transplant recipient: case report.

    A 29-year-old man underwent bilateral lung transplantation and received maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. He was readmitted 11 months later with symptoms of cough, sneezing, and rhinorrhea. The physical examination was normal. Laboratory results were significant for a reduction of FEV1 and an interstitial infiltrate on chest films. The patient had recently undergone bronchoscopy for rejection surveillance, and 2 days before admission the bronchoalveolar lavage cultures returned positive for respiratory syncytial virus. The patient was treated with aerosolized ribavirin with complete resolution of symptoms. Respiratory syncytial virus must now be included in the list of pathogens causing pneumonia in the lung transplant recipient. ( info)

10/52. Severe respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia after autologous bone marrow transplantation: a report of three cases and review.

    Three patients with acute leukemia who underwent autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in complete remission, developed a severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonia, which was fatal in two. Identification of RSV was made on the products of bronchoalveolar lavage by direct immunofluorescence. As already described by others, the initial course of RSV infection varies, depending on whether it occurs sooner or later after BMT with a better prognosis in the latter situation. Treatment consists of aerosolized ribavirin. infection by RSV is caused by manual contact with infected persons and contaminated surfaces. The severity of lung RSV infection in the course of BMT suggests the need for prophylactic measures in addition to standard isolation precautions. ( info)
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