Cases reported "Retinal Artery Occlusion"

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1/37. Branch retinal artery occlusion in systemic diseases: a case report.

    Although branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) is a relatively benign disease in terms of permanent visual impairment, the associated systemic diseases confer significant morbidity and mortality. The following systemic disorders can be found among patients presenting with a retinal artery occlusion: hypertension (59%), significant atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (21%), diabetes mellitus (15% to 21%), left-sided valvular heart disease (5%), and cerebrovascular accidents (5%). These underlying systemic diseases are often responsible for a significant reduction in life expectancy and are in many cases potentially treatable conditions. A thorough cardiovascular examination (including a carotid duplex ultrasonography) may identify these occult diseases, and a prompt and effective treatment may improve the quantity and quality of patients' lives by reducing the risk of further arterial occlusive events.
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ranking = 1
keywords = vascular disease
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2/37. susac syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To report the first Japanese case of the susac syndrome characterized by microangiopathy of the brain, retina, and cochlea. methods: Case report. A 36-year-old Japanese man underwent extensive clinical and laboratory examination for encephalopathy, bilateral recurrent branch retinal arterial occlusion, and hearing loss. RESULTS: This case was initially diagnosed as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Despite exhaustive clinical and laboratory examination of the patient, no evidence of a known systemic disease was found. The bilateral recurrent branch retinal arterial occlusions were widely disseminated. Remission occurred 1 year after symptom onset. This patient demonstrated all of the clinical features associated with the susac syndrome. CONCLUSION: susac syndrome has been considered rare, but it is probably more common than previously thought and seems to occur in any race. This disorder usually occurs in young women, but it can affect men.
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ranking = 9.1131311127597
keywords = microangiopathy
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3/37. Encephalopathy, hearing loss and retinal occlusions (Susac's syndrome): a new case.

    We describe a young woman with retinal arteriolar occlusions, encephalopathy, and hearing loss. At present this disorder is known as Susac's syndrome, a microangiopathy of the brain and retina whose pathogenesis is, however, unknown. The article reviews the clinical features of this rare, but not unusual, syndrome that can easily be misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis.
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ranking = 9.1131311127597
keywords = microangiopathy
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4/37. susac syndrome: microangiopathy of the retina, cochlea and brain.

    BACKGROUND: susac syndrome is characterized by the triad of branch retinal arterial occlusions, encephalopathy and cochlear microangiopathy. The underlying process is believed to be a small vessel vasculitis causing microinfarcts in the retina, brain and cochlea. methods: Analysis of two male and two female cases of susac syndrome recognized in australia. RESULTS: In this series the epidemiology, mode of presentation, ophthalmologic features, neurologic and cochleo-vestibular features, radiologic characteristics, cerebrospinal fluid findings, therapeutic interventions, clinical course and outcome of susac syndrome is examined. Key ophthalmologic differential diagnoses include systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE), Behcet's syndrome and other vasculitides such as sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, syphilis and lymphoma. Neuro-otologic features are most frequently misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis. CONCLUSION: susac syndrome, first described in 1979, is becoming an increasingly recognized condition. Early recognition of the syndrome is important because treatment with systemic immunosuppression may minimize permanent cognitive, audiologic and visual sequelae.
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ranking = 45.565655563798
keywords = microangiopathy
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5/37. Case presentations of retinal artery occlusions.

    BACKGROUND: Retinal artery occlusions typically result in sudden, unilateral painless loss of vision and may have varying presentations. They are associated with systemic diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and valvular heart disease. Additional risk factors include diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, giant-cell arteritis, and hyperlipidemia. They most often occur in persons 60 to 80 years of age. methods: Four patients have come to our clinics with varying degrees of visual loss as a result of retinal artery occlusions. The types of arteriolar occlusions presented include: precapillary arteriole occlusion, cilioretinal artery occlusion, branch retinal artery occlusion, and central retinal artery occlusion. RESULTS: patients were followed for their ocular involvement, but also included was medical management of the underlying systemic disease condition. Workup of retinal artery occlusion included laboratory testing, carotid duplex scans, and echocardiograms to uncover the possible systemic etiologies of the artery occlusion. CONCLUSION: Optometrists should recognize the signs and symptoms of the various arterial obstructions and refer patients for systemic treatment as indicated. patients who manifest retinal or pre-retinal artery occlusions should undergo thorough systemic evaluations for vascular disease, including: atherosclerotic disease, hypertension, and valvular heart disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = vascular disease
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6/37. Susac's syndrome: beneficial effects of corticosteroid therapy in a Japanese case.

    Susac's syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the triad of microangiopathy of the brain and retina with hearing loss. More than 50 affected individuals have been reported worldwide, all Caucasians. We herein identify the first Japanese patient with Susac's syndrome. A 36-year-old man developed recurrent subacute encephalopathy, bi- a lateral sensorineural hearing loss, and retinal arteriolar occlusions, caused by microangiopathy from a year previously. T2-weighted MRI showed multiple high-signal lesions ti predominantly in the periventricular white matter. During the exacerbated phase both high-dose intravenous methyl-prednisolone and oral prednisone therapy produced beneficial effects. He showed definite remission within 2 years from the disease onset.
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ranking = 18.226262225519
keywords = microangiopathy
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7/37. susac syndrome: a vasospastic disorder?

    PURPOSE: The susac syndrome is a microangiopathy that leads to visual symptoms, hearing loss and neurological symptoms. CASE REPORT: We report on a young woman suffering from this syndrome who also presented the following signs and symptoms typical of a vasospastic syndrome; 1) a history of cold hands, low blood pressure and migraine; 2) a typical alteration of conjunctival vessels; 3) prolonged flow arrest time after cooling in nailfold capillaromicroscopy; 4) increased resistivity in the orbital vessels measured by color Doppler imaging; and 5) an increased plasma level of endothelin-1. CONCLUSIONS: We postulate that the Susac syndrome is a manifestation of the vasospastic syndrome.
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ranking = 9.1131311127597
keywords = microangiopathy
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8/37. recurrence of susac syndrome (retinocochleocerebral vasculopathy) after remission of 18 years.

    susac syndrome (retinocochleocerebral vasculopathy) is a syndrome of unknown pathogenesis. The triad of multifocal encephalopathy, visual loss, and hearing loss is caused by microangiopathy of the brain, retina, and cochlea. The illness tends to be monophasic, and to our knowledge, recurrence after years of remission has not been reported. We describe a 51-year-old woman with symptoms, signs, and brain magnetic resonance imaging findings consistent with recurrence of susac syndrome 18 years after remission. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of late recurrence of susac syndrome when evaluating patients with a distant history of the syndrome who present with complaints referable to the brain, retina, and cochlea.
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ranking = 9.1131311127597
keywords = microangiopathy
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9/37. Familial lupus anticoagulant.

    The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is defined by widespread arterial and venous thromboses associated with elevated plasma levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA). The primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (PAPS) appear to be a fairly homogeneous disease, and HLA, family and other studies provide new insights into this cause of thrombosis and vascular disease. We describe two patients with PAPS (lupus anticoagulant positive), whose family members were analyzed for clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with APS. Familial screening seems to be important, in order to prevent the thrombotic events. Low dose aspirin is the first line treatment in asymptomatic subjects with APLA, previous or present thrombosis requiring long-term, possibly life-long anticoagulation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = vascular disease
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10/37. Central retinal artery occlusion and disc edema in a child.

    Obstruction of the retinal arterial system is most commonly associated with elderly patient populations. The major etiologic factor in adults has been attributed to emboli from atherosclerotic vascular disease of the carotid arteries, with about 75% of patients over the age of 40 years demonstrating this finding. Conversely, arterial obstruction in young patients is rarely secondary to atheromatous disease and has a variety of causative factors.(1) We describe an unusual case of a previously healthy 8-year-old boy who developed a unilateral central retinal artery occlusion in conjunction with marked optic disc edema. The etiology of these pathologic lesions was attributed to a viral-like syndrome. Vision rapidly deteriorated to no light perception and remained unchanged despite treatment.
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ranking = 1
keywords = vascular disease
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