Cases reported "Retinal Degeneration"

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1/478. Ocular changes in mucopolysaccharidosis iv A (Morquio A syndrome) and long-term results of perforating keratoplasty.

    BACKGROUND: The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are an inhomogeneous group of disorders of errors in the carbohydrate metabolism with severe ocular involvement (corneal opacification, retinal degeneration, optic atrophy). PATIENT PRESENTATION: We report on a boy aged 12 years, with Morquio A (MPS IV A) syndrome. Ocular findings: progressive pseudoexophthalmus due to shallow orbits, increasing corneal stromal clouding, intermittent dissociated manifest nystagmus of the left eye, nyctalopia. visual acuity OD cc = 0.16, OS cc = 0.05. electrophysiology: changes suggesting a symptomatic tapetoretinal degeneration and optic atrophy. TREATMENT AND COURSE OF disease: OS: perforating keratoplasty. Postoperative improvement of visual acuity to 0.25 for nearly a year, followed by progressive reopacification of the corneal graft. Both eyes: progressive signs of tapetoretinal degeneration and optic atrophy. visual acuity now reduced to OD 0.05, OS 0.1. CONCLUSIONS: Success of a keratoplasty is limited by (1) reopacification of the cornea, (2) visual impairment due to (a) retinal degeneration and (b) optic atrophy. The indication for perforating keratoplasty has to be thought about very carefully in these multimorbid patients. In our patient, beside progressive visual impairment there is a progressive deafness which dominates his social and school life. Attending school is severely complicated by the double handicap. Perforating keratoplasty enabled the boy to attend a school for physically handicapped without a special low-vision care for another year. Progressive visual loss without further treatment options now renders optical and electronic low-vision aids necessary. Although the time of improved visual acuity lasted less than a year, we think patients with a life expectancy of less than 20 years should have every possible improvement of their situation - even if it does not last permanently. We therefore propose perforating keratoplasty in spite of insufficient long-term results. ( info)

2/478. Extensive chorioretinal atrophy in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease.

    PURPOSE: To report extensive chorioretinal atrophy during the long-term course of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease not treated properly in the initial phase. CASES: Four patients with VKH disease were examined more than 10 years after onset of the disease. OBSERVATIONS: They presented initially with classic features of VKH disease, except 1 patient who had developed bilateral, acute angle-closure glaucoma as the initial sign. Two patients received systemic corticosteroid therapy at the acute phase of the disease. During the follow-up of 13-34 years subsequent to onset, these patients had chronic recurrent anterior uveitis with apparently stable depigmented fundus. Eventually, they developed diffuse, extensive chorioretinal atrophy that resulted in severe visual loss. One patient had an unusual familial occurrence of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Failure to prescribe proper corticosteroid therapy in the initial phase of VKH disease may lead to chronic recurrent uveitis. Long-standing uveitic reactions may eventually result in severe visual loss due to extensive chorioretinal degeneration. ( info)

3/478. Episcleritis associated with pigmentary retinal degeneration in an HTLV-I carrier.

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) has been reported as the cause of a kind of endogenous uveitis (HTLV-I associated uveitis; HAU). We observed a case of episcleritis in a HTLV-I carrier with pigmentary retinal degeneration. HTLV-I infection might be associated with the development of episcleritis and pigmentary retinal degeneration. patients with episcleritis or pigmentary retinal degeneration should be examined for HTLV-I infection. ( info)

4/478. retinal degeneration associated with ectopia lentis.

    Two brothers had retinal degeneration, lens subluxation, and myopia since early life. There was no evidence of marfan syndrome, homocystinuria, or other systemic disease. They had nystagmus, myopia, inferior dislocation of the lens, and posterior subcapsular opacities in both eyes. Fundus examination showed attenuated retinal vessels, macular atrophy with occasional pigment accumulation as clumps, and perivascular sleeves. electroretinography revealed decreased photopic and scotopic responses. The visual fields were constricted. We believe this to be the first report of retinal degeneration with bilateral lens subluxation in a family. It appears to be inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. ( info)

5/478. Focal retinal pigment epithelial dysplasia associated with fundus flavimaculatus.

    BACKGROUND: One or more focal dysplastic lesions of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) occurred in 15 eyes of 10 patients with fundus flavimaculatus. methods: review of patient records including an attempt to obtain follow-up information concerning a history of previous ocular trauma. RESULTS: Mild antecedent ocular trauma occurred to the eye with a dysplastic lesion in two patients. Dysplastic lesions were most frequently solitary and located temporal to the macula. Subretinal neovascularization accompanied two of the dysplastic lesions. The lesions were multifocal and present bilaterally in two patients. CONCLUSIONS: In fundus flavimaculatus, progressive lipofuscin storage is responsible for engorgement and hypertrophy of the RPE. Dysplastic lesions of the RPE probably result from reactive hyperplasia and fibrous metaplasia of RPE cells in response to acute disruption of fragile, hypertrophied RPE cells that may be enormously enlarged in the area of yellow flecks. This disruption may occur in response to trauma, focal inflammation, or other localized stimuli. patients with fundus flavimaculatus should be cautioned concerning the possible role of trauma in causing dysplastic changes in the RPE and visual loss. ( info)

6/478. Clinical features of Goldmann-Favre syndrome.

    A 21-year-old woman complained of progressive loss of visual acuity. She had also had night blindness since she was ten years old. At the eye examination, the vitreous was found to be degenerated in both eyes. The fundus findings were a large retinoschisis in the right macula, edema resembling retinoschisis in the left macula and annular degenerative changes in the midperiphery. ERG and dark adaption were abnormal. This vitreoretinal degeneration was diagnosed as Goldmann-Favre syndrome. ( info)

7/478. Histopathological findings of X-linked retinoschisis with neovascular glaucoma.

    BACKGROUND: X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is rarely complicated by neovascular glaucoma. Only a few reports of XLRS histopathological findings with neovascular glaucoma have been published. methods: A 41-year-old man with XLRS complicated by neovascular glaucoma in his left eye was examined with electroretinography, B-scan, ultrasound biomicroscopy and computed tomography. He was examined by ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein angiography in the other eye. An enucleation was performed in his left eye due to uncontrollable high intraocular pressure and persistent ocular pain. We examined the enucleated eye histopathologically. RESULTS: Examination of the enucleated eye showed nuclear sclerosis of the lens, pigmented retrolental membrane and retinoschisis which separated the inner layer of the retina and made a large space in the vitreous cavity without any apparent detachment of the outer layers of the retina. Sclerotic vessels were present histopathologically in both the inner and outer layers of the retina. There was a peripheral anterior synechia, ectropion uveae and a fibrovascular membrane, which contained many lumina of neovascularization, indicating marked rubeosis iridis. Small cystic spaces were observed in both the schitic retina in the peripheral region and the foveal schisis at the outer layer of the retina. The photoreceptor cells had become markedly atrophied and multiple regions of calcification were observed. The optic nerve showed severe atrophy with gliosis, but the central retinal artery and vein were still open within the nerve. CONCLUSIONS: These histopathological findings suggest that rubeosis iridis may have developed secondarily to retinal ischemia due to occlusion of the retinal blood vessels. ( info)

8/478. Progressive cone dystrophies.

    patients with progressive generalized cone dystrophy often present nystagmus (or strabism) and complain of photophobia, decrease in visual acuity or disturbances in colour perception. The most classic fundus abnormality is the bull's eye maculopathy or a pallor of the optic disc. Minimal macular changes are sometimes seen, which may progress to a bull's eye type of macular degeneration. The photopic ERG is always very affected, whereas at first the scotopic ERG seems normal. Progressive deterioration of the visual functions is accompanied by increasing fundus lesions and rod involvement, as suggested by the modifications of the dark adaptation curve and the scotopic ERG. However, the progression of typical generalized cone dysfunction is very slow. On the contrary, in some cases of so-called Stargardt's disease with peripheral participation, a very rapid progression has been observed. In such cases a normal ERG does not necessarily mean that the disease will remain localized to the macular area. No definite prognosis can be made on one single ERG. In 3 cases with sector pigmentary retinopathy the photopic ERG was more affected than the scotopic ERG. However, these cases are probably primary cone-rod dystrophies. Although there is no electrophysiological control, our clinical impression is that the evolution, if possible, is very slow. ( info)

9/478. Juvenile retinoschisis: a model for molecular diagnostic testing of X-linked ophthalmic disease.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (RS) provides a starting point to define clinical paradigms and understand the limitations of diagnostic molecular testing. The RS phenotype is specific, but the broad severity range is clinically confusing. Molecular diagnostic testing obviates unnecessary examinations for boys at-risk and identifies carrier females who otherwise show no clinical signs. methods: The XLRS1 gene has 6 exons of 26-196 base-pair size. Each exon is amplified by a single polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced, starting with exons 4 through 6, which contain mutation "hot spots." RESULTS: The 6 XLRS1 exons are sequenced serially. If alterations are found, they are compared with mutations in our > 120 XLRS families and with the > 300 mutations reported worldwide. Point mutations, small deletions, or rearrangements are identified in nearly 90% of males with a clinical diagnosis of RS. XLRS1 has very few sequence polymorphisms. Carrier-state testing produces 1 of 3 results: (1) positive, in which the woman has the same mutation as an affected male relative or known in other RS families; (2) negative, in which she lacks the mutation of her affected male relative; and (3) uninformative, in which no known mutation is identified or no information exists about the familial mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular RS screening is an effective diagnostic tool that complements the clinician's skills for early detection of at-risk males. Useful outcomes of carrier testing depend on several factors: (1) a male relative with a clear clinical diagnosis; (2) a well-defined inheritance pattern; (3) high disease penetrance; (4) size and organization of the gene; and (5) the types of disease-associated mutations. Ethical questions include molecular diagnostic testing of young at-risk females before the age of consent, the impact of this information on the emotional health of the patient and family, and issues of employability and insurance coverage. ( info)

10/478. Optical coherence tomography in the study of the Goldmann-Favre syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of Goldmann-Favre syndrome with special emphasis on the optical coherence tomography findings. methods: In a 23-year-old white man with an 8-year history of visual impairment in both eyes and night blindness, vertical and horizontal optical coherence tomography images were obtained through the macula and through the retinoschisis located at the temporal side of the macula. RESULTS: Optical coherence tomography showed in the left eye a clear loss of the inner retinal layer at the fovea and the formation of inner and outer retinal layer holes in the temporally located retinoschisis. The outer retinal layer hole had rolled edges. CONCLUSION: In Goldmann-Favre syndrome, optical coherence tomography demonstrated confluent macular cystoid changes and retinoschisis in both eyes. In the left eye, a lamellar macular hole and retinoschisis with inner retinal layer and outer retinal layer holes were observed. The outer retinal layer hole had rolled edges. ( info)
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