Cases reported "Retinal Degeneration"

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1/8. Senior-Loken syndrome (nephronophthisis and tapeto-retinal degeneration): a study of 8 cases from 5 families.

    The association of nephronophthisis and tapeto-retional degeneration was described by both Senior and Loken in 1961, but prior to 1974 only 28 cases had been published. This report describes 8 new cases in 27 members of 5 families. The severe juvenile type produces blindness in infancy and death from renal failure before the age of ten. The adult type is characterized by later onset, slower progression of the renal disease and milder ocular manifestations. The eye disease may be congenital amaurosis of Leber type, pigmentary retinal degeneration or retinitis punctata albescens and the electroretinogram (ERG) is of value in the diagnosis of these varieties of hereditary tapeto-retinal degeneration. Renal involvement is often asymptomatic. Defective urinary concentration leading to polyuria and polydipsia is the earliest sign. proteinuria is inconstant and urinary sediment is often normal. Two patients had aminoaciduria. The disease progresses inexorably to chronic renal failure. One patient has been successfully transplanted and two others are on chronic hemodialysis. Renal histological changes are those of nephronophthisis with tubulointerstitial lesions and multiple cysts. Senior-Loken syndrome appears to be transmitted by a single autosomal recessive pleotropic gene of variable expression. Degeneration of neuroepithelium and renal tubular epithelium, both tissues of ectodermal origin, may represent a genetically determined enzyme abnormality.
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ranking = 1
keywords = congenital amaurosis, amaurosis
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2/8. Joubert syndrome.

    Joubert syndrome is an autosomal recessive condition in which there is a variable combination of central nervous system defects with a distinctive congenital retinal dystrophy, ocular motor abnormalities, and respiratory abnormalities in early infancy. The retinal dystrophy has been previously classified as a variant of Leber's congenital amaurosis. We report electrophysiologic and eye movement findings in a series of seven consecutive children with Joubert syndrome. Unlike patients with Leber's congenital amaurosis, all but one of these children had preserved flash and pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials. Six of the seven children had abnormalities of smooth pursuit, optokinetic nystagmus, and saccades. Six of the children had nystagmus: three had a pendular torsional nystagmus and three had a form of see-saw nystagmus. An alternating hyperdeviation was present in five of the patients, two of whom also had a tonic deviation of their eyes laterally. All seven patients had cerebellar vermis hypoplasia on a magnetic resonance imaging scan. Developmentally delayed children with an absent or highly attenuated electroretinogram should be investigated for Joubert syndrome.
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ranking = 2
keywords = congenital amaurosis, amaurosis
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3/8. Cone-rod congenital amaurosis associated with congenital hypertrichosis: an autosomal recessive condition.

    Two female cousins were found to be affected with severe retinal dystrophy characterised by visual impairment from birth and profound photophobia in the absence of night blindness. Minimal fundus changes with a small foveal atrophy in the older cousin and slight macular pigment epithelial changes suggestive of early bull's eye appearance in the younger were detected, indicative of a cone-rod type of congenital amaurosis. This was associated with trichomegaly, bushy eyebrows with synophyrys, and excessive facial and body hair (including hypertrophied circumareolar hair on the breasts of the older cousin). The mode of inheritance appears to be autosomal recessive.
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ranking = 5
keywords = congenital amaurosis, amaurosis
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4/8. Retinal involvement in thoracic-pelvic-phalangeal dystrophy.

    A patient with typical thoracic-pelvic-phalangeal dystrophy has survived to the age of 11 years with no pulmonary problem except a single episode of pneumonia at the age of 5 years. She has no evidence of renal disease. An associated ocular lesion resembled Leber's congenital amaurosis clinically but was different on electrophysiologic testing.
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ranking = 1
keywords = congenital amaurosis, amaurosis
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5/8. A syndrome of congenital retinal dystrophy and saccade palsy--a subset of Leber's amaurosis.

    Three children who presented in infancy with a severe visual defect and absent or barely recordable electroretinograms, with relatively well preserved visually evoked cortical potentials, were subsequently found to have vertical and horizontal saccade palsies with head thrusts but relatively good visual acuity. These children, who were clearly different from other infants with congenital retinal dystrophy, were also developmentally delayed and had systemic motor and speech defects, but their visual prognosis was relatively good. The recognition of their saccade palsy was delayed because their poor visual attention in infancy was ascribed purely to the tapetoretinal degeneration. We consider these patients represent a clear subset of those patients who are diagnosed as having congenital retinal dystrophy or Leber's amaurosis.
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ranking = 0.072019786714312
keywords = amaurosis
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6/8. Pseudo-inflammatory chorioretinal degeneration of the posterior pole. Study of a family of four affected generations, associated with tapetoretinal amaurosis (Leber) in the fifth generation.

    A description is given of a large family in which a particular form of posterior pole dystrophy occurs, but in which (except for one 21-year-old patient) no symptoms occur before the age of forty. Although it is of dominant transmission through four generations with a high degree of penetrance, slight forms do occur. The disease evolves in 2-4 years and in serious cases there is total loss of the central vision. Peripheral vision is conserved, so that affected patients are never entirely disabled and dependent. Early or slight cases may be precociously detected by angiography or sensitive functional tests (EOG, VER, and perhaps colour vision). The rapid evolution is due to exudative or haemorrhagic phenomena. This observation corresponds with the description of the disease individualized by Sorsby (pseudo-inflammatory posterior pole dystrophy) and is related to colloid degeneration. In the fifth generation a case of Leber's congenital amaurosis occurs, which is difficult to relate to the late posterior pole dystrophy.
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ranking = 1.0576158293714
keywords = congenital amaurosis, amaurosis
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7/8. Leber's congenital amaurosis with associated nephronophthisis.

    The authors present a case of a 15-year-old girl with Leber's congenital amaurosis with associated nephronophthisis. The main findings in this case are: congenital blindness; enophthalmos; photophobia; nystagmus; keratoconus; cataracts; pigmentary degeneration in the fundus of both eyes; progressive uremia with absence of hematuria, proteinuria, pyuria, and glycosuria; low urinary density, normal lipidic profile; osteoporosis; absence of edema; polydipsia; polyuria; and a history of consanguinity between her parents. Tranmission of this entity allows an autosomal recessive pattern.
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ranking = 5
keywords = congenital amaurosis, amaurosis
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8/8. The ocular pathology in Leber's congenital amaurosis.

    PURPOSE: To present the ocular pathology of a three-year-old child with Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA) who died from an unrelated episode of presumed viral meningitis. methods: autopsy was performed, and in addition the globes were harvested for pathological examination. Before the child's death, known systemic disorders with infantile retinal dystrophy were excluded. RESULTS: The outer nuclear layer and photoreceptor layers are the primary site of retinal pathology in LCA. CONCLUSION: This report of the pathological findings in LCA, early in the natural history of the disease, indicates that process appears to be a degeneration rather than an agenesis.
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ranking = 5
keywords = congenital amaurosis, amaurosis
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