Cases reported "Retinal Degeneration"

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1/152. Ocular changes in mucopolysaccharidosis iv A (Morquio A syndrome) and long-term results of perforating keratoplasty.

    BACKGROUND: The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are an inhomogeneous group of disorders of errors in the carbohydrate metabolism with severe ocular involvement (corneal opacification, retinal degeneration, optic atrophy). PATIENT PRESENTATION: We report on a boy aged 12 years, with Morquio A (MPS IV A) syndrome. Ocular findings: progressive pseudoexophthalmus due to shallow orbits, increasing corneal stromal clouding, intermittent dissociated manifest nystagmus of the left eye, nyctalopia. visual acuity OD cc = 0.16, OS cc = 0.05. electrophysiology: changes suggesting a symptomatic tapetoretinal degeneration and optic atrophy. TREATMENT AND COURSE OF disease: OS: perforating keratoplasty. Postoperative improvement of visual acuity to 0.25 for nearly a year, followed by progressive reopacification of the corneal graft. Both eyes: progressive signs of tapetoretinal degeneration and optic atrophy. visual acuity now reduced to OD 0.05, OS 0.1. CONCLUSIONS: Success of a keratoplasty is limited by (1) reopacification of the cornea, (2) visual impairment due to (a) retinal degeneration and (b) optic atrophy. The indication for perforating keratoplasty has to be thought about very carefully in these multimorbid patients. In our patient, beside progressive visual impairment there is a progressive deafness which dominates his social and school life. Attending school is severely complicated by the double handicap. Perforating keratoplasty enabled the boy to attend a school for physically handicapped without a special low-vision care for another year. Progressive visual loss without further treatment options now renders optical and electronic low-vision aids necessary. Although the time of improved visual acuity lasted less than a year, we think patients with a life expectancy of less than 20 years should have every possible improvement of their situation - even if it does not last permanently. We therefore propose perforating keratoplasty in spite of insufficient long-term results.
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2/152. Extensive chorioretinal atrophy in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease.

    PURPOSE: To report extensive chorioretinal atrophy during the long-term course of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease not treated properly in the initial phase. CASES: Four patients with VKH disease were examined more than 10 years after onset of the disease. OBSERVATIONS: They presented initially with classic features of VKH disease, except 1 patient who had developed bilateral, acute angle-closure glaucoma as the initial sign. Two patients received systemic corticosteroid therapy at the acute phase of the disease. During the follow-up of 13-34 years subsequent to onset, these patients had chronic recurrent anterior uveitis with apparently stable depigmented fundus. Eventually, they developed diffuse, extensive chorioretinal atrophy that resulted in severe visual loss. One patient had an unusual familial occurrence of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Failure to prescribe proper corticosteroid therapy in the initial phase of VKH disease may lead to chronic recurrent uveitis. Long-standing uveitic reactions may eventually result in severe visual loss due to extensive chorioretinal degeneration.
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3/152. retinal degeneration associated with ectopia lentis.

    Two brothers had retinal degeneration, lens subluxation, and myopia since early life. There was no evidence of marfan syndrome, homocystinuria, or other systemic disease. They had nystagmus, myopia, inferior dislocation of the lens, and posterior subcapsular opacities in both eyes. Fundus examination showed attenuated retinal vessels, macular atrophy with occasional pigment accumulation as clumps, and perivascular sleeves. electroretinography revealed decreased photopic and scotopic responses. The visual fields were constricted. We believe this to be the first report of retinal degeneration with bilateral lens subluxation in a family. It appears to be inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion.
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4/152. Focal retinal pigment epithelial dysplasia associated with fundus flavimaculatus.

    BACKGROUND: One or more focal dysplastic lesions of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) occurred in 15 eyes of 10 patients with fundus flavimaculatus. methods: review of patient records including an attempt to obtain follow-up information concerning a history of previous ocular trauma. RESULTS: Mild antecedent ocular trauma occurred to the eye with a dysplastic lesion in two patients. Dysplastic lesions were most frequently solitary and located temporal to the macula. Subretinal neovascularization accompanied two of the dysplastic lesions. The lesions were multifocal and present bilaterally in two patients. CONCLUSIONS: In fundus flavimaculatus, progressive lipofuscin storage is responsible for engorgement and hypertrophy of the RPE. Dysplastic lesions of the RPE probably result from reactive hyperplasia and fibrous metaplasia of RPE cells in response to acute disruption of fragile, hypertrophied RPE cells that may be enormously enlarged in the area of yellow flecks. This disruption may occur in response to trauma, focal inflammation, or other localized stimuli. patients with fundus flavimaculatus should be cautioned concerning the possible role of trauma in causing dysplastic changes in the RPE and visual loss.
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5/152. Clinical features of Goldmann-Favre syndrome.

    A 21-year-old woman complained of progressive loss of visual acuity. She had also had night blindness since she was ten years old. At the eye examination, the vitreous was found to be degenerated in both eyes. The fundus findings were a large retinoschisis in the right macula, edema resembling retinoschisis in the left macula and annular degenerative changes in the midperiphery. ERG and dark adaption were abnormal. This vitreoretinal degeneration was diagnosed as Goldmann-Favre syndrome.
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6/152. Progressive cone dystrophies.

    patients with progressive generalized cone dystrophy often present nystagmus (or strabism) and complain of photophobia, decrease in visual acuity or disturbances in colour perception. The most classic fundus abnormality is the bull's eye maculopathy or a pallor of the optic disc. Minimal macular changes are sometimes seen, which may progress to a bull's eye type of macular degeneration. The photopic ERG is always very affected, whereas at first the scotopic ERG seems normal. Progressive deterioration of the visual functions is accompanied by increasing fundus lesions and rod involvement, as suggested by the modifications of the dark adaptation curve and the scotopic ERG. However, the progression of typical generalized cone dysfunction is very slow. On the contrary, in some cases of so-called Stargardt's disease with peripheral participation, a very rapid progression has been observed. In such cases a normal ERG does not necessarily mean that the disease will remain localized to the macular area. No definite prognosis can be made on one single ERG. In 3 cases with sector pigmentary retinopathy the photopic ERG was more affected than the scotopic ERG. However, these cases are probably primary cone-rod dystrophies. Although there is no electrophysiological control, our clinical impression is that the evolution, if possible, is very slow.
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7/152. Optical coherence tomography in the study of the Goldmann-Favre syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of Goldmann-Favre syndrome with special emphasis on the optical coherence tomography findings. methods: In a 23-year-old white man with an 8-year history of visual impairment in both eyes and night blindness, vertical and horizontal optical coherence tomography images were obtained through the macula and through the retinoschisis located at the temporal side of the macula. RESULTS: Optical coherence tomography showed in the left eye a clear loss of the inner retinal layer at the fovea and the formation of inner and outer retinal layer holes in the temporally located retinoschisis. The outer retinal layer hole had rolled edges. CONCLUSION: In Goldmann-Favre syndrome, optical coherence tomography demonstrated confluent macular cystoid changes and retinoschisis in both eyes. In the left eye, a lamellar macular hole and retinoschisis with inner retinal layer and outer retinal layer holes were observed. The outer retinal layer hole had rolled edges.
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8/152. bardet-biedl syndrome.

    This case report describes the presentation of a patient with bardet-biedl syndrome. bardet-biedl syndrome is an autosomal recessive condition that includes retinal dystrophy, dystrophic extremities (commonly polydactyly), obesity, hypogenitalism, and renal disease. Cognitive deficit has also been considered part of the syndrome. The historically associated laurence-moon syndrome includes spastic paraparesis but not the obesity and polydactyly. They are now considered separate conditions. The most common feature of bardet-biedl syndrome is retinal dystrophy. The appearance of the retina in the condition is quite variable with typical retinitis pigmentosa being present in only a minority of cases. The associated optic atrophy can be primary in nature and might play a role in the decreased central vision. diagnosis of the condition is important for visual prognosis and low vision management. The renal disease often goes undetected until specific radiological testing is done after diagnosis of bardet-biedl syndrome. This is significant in that early death often occurs in this condition because of the renal disease.
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9/152. Clinical characteristics of 14 japanese patients with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis associated with XLRS1 mutation.

    To characterize the clinical features associated with XLRS1 gene mutations in Japanese patients with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (xlRS), we evaluated the following data on 14 Japanese males from 13 unrelated families with XLRS1 mutations: age and symptoms at first visit to an ophthalmologist and ophthalmologic findings including visual acuity, refractive errors, fundoscopic appearance, and results of electroretinography (ERG) and electro-oculography (EOG). Each clinical finding was reviewed when the patients were between six and eight years of age. The best-corrected visual acuity in 12 patients (24 eyes) between the ages 6 and 8 years ranged from 1.0 to no light perception. Macular abnormalities were present in all cases. Peripheral retinoschisis was present in 14 of 26 eyes (53.8%). In the 21 eyes for which a single-flash ERG had been recorded, b-wave amplitude was reduced in 17 eyes. The EOG showed a low Arden ratio in three of the 13 eyes in the seven patients evaluated. No clear relationship was observed between the clinical features and the existing mutations. Three of four patients with a visual acuity less than 0.1 had retinal detachment or severe macular lesion that had occurred before the age of four years. Two patients harbored deletions of exon 1 or of the boundary region between exon 3 and intron 3, and one patient harbored R182C in exon 6. The present study shows a heterogeneity of mutations in the XLRS1 gene and phenotypic variations in 14 Japanese patients with xlRS.
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10/152. Hereditary retinal dystrophies and choroidal neovascularization.

    BACKGROUND: choroidal neovascularization infrequently occurs in patients affected by hereditary retinal dystrophies. methods: We studied eight patients suffering from different hereditary retinal dystrophies (Best's disease, reticular dystrophy, butterfly-shaped dystrophy, gyrate atrophy, and retinitis pigmentosa) who developed choroidal neovascularization. All patients underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation, electrophysiology, colour vision testing, and fluorescein angiography. In some patients, ICG video-angiography was also performed. Laser treatment was carried out in only one patient. RESULTS: The mean duration of follow-up was 41.7 months (range 6-148 months). At CNV diagnosis, the mean VA was 0.23 (range 0.02-0.6). At the last follow-up, mean VA was 0.34 (range HM to 0.9). At the last follow-up, fluorescein angiography showed a focal, atrophic scar in seven eyes, a fibrotic membrane in two eyes and a still active membrane in two cases. CONCLUSION: We emphasize the relatively favourable visual prognosis in patients suffering from inherited retinal dystrophies complicated with choroidal neovascularization. Therapeutic approaches other than laser treatment could be attempted in these patients.
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