Cases reported "Retinal Diseases"

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1/37. Human psychophysical analysis of receptive field-like properties: V. Adaptation of stationary and moving windmill target characteristics to clinical populations.

    This paper describes the application of several key parameters of a windmill-shaped target (used in determinations of the psychophysical transient-like function) to clinical populations as a diagnostic tool for static perimetry. A technique for independently analyzing sustained- (Westheimer function) and transient-like retinally-based psychophysical responses is outlined, and stimulus characteristics, reliability and diagnostic potential of the tests are examined. Several particularly interesting clinical cases (one closure of a branch retinal arteriole) and two senile macular degeneration patients) are presented for illustrative purposes. In addition, a tentative 'working hypothesis' is presented as a basis for extensive future analysis of various clinical populations.
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ranking = 1
keywords = arteriole
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2/37. White thread-like retinal arterioles associated with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: Report of 2 patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) who had elevated anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies and showed white thread-like retinal arterioles. CASES: A complete ophthalmological examination was conducted on 2 patients who presented with blurred or distorted vision. fluorescein angiography was used to examine the integrity of the retinal circulatory system. Laboratory blood studies were conducted. OBSERVATIONS: In both patients, some of the major retinal arterioles appeared white and had a thread-like appearance. fluorescein angiography demonstrated progressive occlusion or stenosis of these major arterioles with extensive insufficiency of the regional capillary bed. Patient 2 had systemic lupus erythematosus and was treated with oral corticosteroid and aspirin. Recanalization occurred during a 3-year follow-up in one of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: APS should be considered in cases of white thread-like retinal arterioles. Occlusion of the retinal arterioles in APS may be progressive and responsible for the chronic hypoxia of the retina.
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ranking = 9
keywords = arteriole
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3/37. Retinal arteriolar tortuosity with recurrent retinal hemorrhages--case report.

    Retinal arteriolar tortuosity with retinal hemorrhage was first described in 1958. A 45 year-old Taiwanese man had experienced recurrent retinal hemorrhages in each eye in the previous 20 years. The hemorrhages resolved spontaneously without any subjectively obvious sequelae. He has no history of hypertension or any vascular occlusive diseases. There were also no similar cases in his family. The medical examination and laboratory tests did not reveal any significant etiologic factors. Ophthalmologically, the retinal vein was normal but all retinal arterioles were tortuous from the posterior pole to the periphery. fluorescein angiography revealed the same findings. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in taiwan.
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ranking = 1
keywords = arteriole
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4/37. Acute pancreatitis with Purtscher's retinopathy: case report and review of the literature.

    The case is described of a 32-year-old man suffering from alcoholism who came to the Emergency Unit with vomiting, fever and sharp epigastric pain irradiating to the chest and upper abdomen. A diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was made after high amylase and lipase levels were observed and the results of computed tomography scan revealed images typical of acute pancreatitis. Findings upon admission and after the initial 48 hours did not correlate with a severe or complicated course according to Ranson's criteria. On the third day after admission he suddenly developed decreased vision. A fluorescein angiogram showed arteriolar occlusion, retinal and choriocapillary ischaemia. Purtscher's retinopathy was suspected. After 4 weeks, the patient had recovered from acute pancreatitis, ophthalmoscopic examination showed normal results, and visual acuity had almost returned to normal. Activation of complement in acute pancreatitis could account for many haematologic acute disorders due to leucocyte emboli or other complement-mediated aggregates. Coagulation abnormalities may range from isolated intravascular thrombosis to severe disseminated intravascular coagulation. Purtscher's retinopathy, due to microembolizations in the choroidal and retinal arterioles, should be included among the various systemic effects of acute pancreatitis. This visual disorder is a rare systemic manifestation of acute pancreatitis which was not correlated to a severe or complicated clinical course. Treatment of these ocular complications remains to be established and outcome, therefore, depends upon resolution of the pancreatic disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = arteriole
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5/37. The photoreceptor cell-specific nuclear receptor is an autoantigen of paraneoplastic retinopathy.

    OBJECTIVES: To report a novel antibody associated with paraneoplastic retinopathy and to characterize the retinal autoantigen. methods: immunohistochemistry of rat and human tissues was used to identify antiretinal antibodies. Serologic screening of a bovine retinal cDNA expression library was performed to clone the target antigen. RESULTS: A 72-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of progressive visual loss, bilateral central scotomas, light flashes, and night blindness. visual acuity was 20/40 OD and 20/30 OS. There was generalized loss of retinal pigment and narrow arterioles; discs were normal in appearance. The electroretinogram showed no response. Chest computed tomograph scan demonstrated a right lung mass; biopsy revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma. The patients' serum contained antibodies that immunolabeled nuclei of cells of the outer--and to a lesser extent, the inner--nuclear layer of the adult rat retina. No reactivity was identified with nonretinal adult human or rat tissues. Reactivity was seen in the developing rat embryo. Serologic screening of a bovine retinal library resulted in the isolation of three overlapping clones, encoding a protein highly homologous to the human photoreceptor cell-specific nuclear receptor gene product. CONCLUSIONS: The target antigen of an antibody associated with paraneoplastic retinopathy is the photoreceptor cellspecific nuclear receptor, a member of a conserved family of nuclear receptors involved in photoreceptor cell development or maintenance.
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ranking = 1
keywords = arteriole
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6/37. Retinal ischemia in diabetic retinopathy.

    Eight patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy developed extensive retinal arteriolar and capillary obstruction. ophthalmoscopy showed many white, thread-like retinal arterioles associated with capillary and venous dilatation. Widespread retinal arteriolar and capillary nonperfusion was demonstrated by fluorescein angiography. Ischemic maculopathy resulted in severe loss of visual acuity in some eyes. The severe degree of retinal ischemia was accompanied by optic disc pallor and neovascularization and a high incidence of rubeosis iridis with neovascular glaucoma. patients with this variety of diabetic retinopathy have a poor prognosis of retaining useful vision.
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ranking = 1
keywords = arteriole
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7/37. Multiple major retinal vascular occlusions in sickle cell haemoglobin C disease.

    A case of multiple occlusions of different sized arterioles involving the central area of the fundus has been reported in a patient suffering from sickle cell haemoglobin C disease (SC).
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ranking = 1
keywords = arteriole
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8/37. Preliminary clinical observation of arteriovenous sheathotomy for treatment of branch retinal vein occlusion.

    PURPOSE: To document the anatomic and functional improvement of six patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) following successful arteriovenous adventitial sheathotomy (AAS). methods: Retrospective study of 6 patients (6 eyes) with BRVO treated with AAS. All patients were not eligible for laser photocoagulation and had both macular edema and intraretinal hemorrhage. The visual acuity was in the range of 0.4 to 0.02. All patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy and AAS. The clinical improvement was determined by fundus photograph, fluorescein angiography (FAG), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multifocal electroretinography (ERG). All patients were followed postoperatively for an average of 20 months ranging from 12 to 24 months. RESULTS: Sheathotomy and decompression of the arteriole/venule (A/V) crossing were achieved in all 6 patients. 5 patients have improved their best-corrected visual acuity 4 lines or more. The best one could reach to 1.0. One month after the operation, fundus photograph and FAG demonstrated the resolution of intraretinal hemorrhage, reduction of non-perfusion area and apparent resolution of retinal venous dilation and tortuosity. OCT confirmed remarkable reduction of retinal thickness. The microcysts at the fovea diminished. Multifocal ERG showed the recovery of the central peak at the macular and the peripheral response density. However, capillary nonperfusion area and microaneurysm were found out by FAG in four patients at the points distal to the sheathotomy three months after the operation. CONCLUSIONS: Anatomic and functional improvement of retina can be achieved in patients with BRVO through AAS. However, the capillary nonperfusion and microaneurysm may follow this surgical procedure in some cases that need further treatment with laser photocoagulation. The better visual improvement may be expected in the patients with earlier surgical intervention.
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ranking = 1
keywords = arteriole
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9/37. Dual macroaneurysms on the same retinal arteriole.

    A case of two macroaneurysms on the same retinal arteriole is presented. After observation of these lesions for some weeks, an increased threat to the macula from oedema led to laser photocoagulation. Although treatment did not hasten resolution, the patient has remained asymptomatic. The aetiology and natural history of macroaneurysms are discussed.
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ranking = 5
keywords = arteriole
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10/37. Retinal capillary hemangioma.

    Capillary hemangiomas of the retina, which commonly occur as part of von Hippel's disease, are classically composed of a retinal capillary tumor, a large feeder arteriole, and a draining venule. The fundamental pathology is a hamartomatous lesion. In this paper, the case of an early, incipient lesion will be presented. Since approximately 25 percent of patients with angiomatosis retinae develop the life-threatening von hippel-lindau disease, the eye care practitioner needs to be aware of this condition. Also included in the discussion are the treatment options available for these retinal abnormalities.
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ranking = 1
keywords = arteriole
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