Cases reported "Retinal Diseases"

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1/190. Pars plana vitrectomy and subretinal surgery for ocular toxocariasis.

    The clinical course of ocular toxocariasis and the chronological development of peripheral retinal and macular granulomas are reported. Removing the epiretinal as well as subretinal component of the granuloma via pars plana vitrectomy and retinotomy techniques yielded an excellent clinical result. Clinicopathologic correlation of the specimen confirmed the diagnosis with histological evidence of degenerated larval structures in granulomatous inflammation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = epiretinal
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2/190. diplopia secondary to aniseikonia associated with macular disease.

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an explanation for diplopia and the inability to fuse in some patients with macular disease. methods: We identified 7 patients from our practices who had binocular diplopia concurrent with epiretinal membranes or vitreomacular traction. A review of the medical records of all patients was performed. In addition to complete ophthalmologic and orthoptic examinations, evaluation of aniseikonia using the Awaya New aniseikonia Tests (Handaya Co Ltd, tokyo, japan) was performed on all patients. RESULTS: All patients were referred for troublesome diplopia. Six of the patients had epiretinal membranes and 1 had vitreomacular traction. All 7 patients had aniseikonia, ranging from 5% to 18%. In 5 of the patients the image in the involved eye was larger, and in the other 2 patients it was smaller than in the fellow eye. All patients had concomitant small-angle strabismus and at least initially did not fuse when the deviation was offset with a prism. Response to optical management and retinal surgery was variable. CONCLUSIONS: aniseikonia caused by separation or compression of photoreceptors can be a contributing factor to the existence of diplopia and the inability to fuse in patients with macular disease. Concomitant small-angle strabismus and the inability to fuse with prisms may lead the clinician to the incorrect diagnosis of central disruption of fusion. Surgical intervention does not necessarily improve the aniseikonia.
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ranking = 10.114008639588
keywords = epiretinal membrane, epiretinal, membrane
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3/190. Nonsurgical management of binocular diplopia induced by macular pathology.

    OBJECTIVE: To treat binocular diplopia secondary to macular pathology. methods: Seven patients underwent evaluation and treatment. All had constant vertical diplopia caused by various maculopathies, including subretinal neovascularization, epiretinal membrane, and central serous retinopathy. visual acuity ranged from 20/20 to 20/30 in the affected eye. All except 1 patient had a small-angle, comitant hyperdeviation with no muscle paresis. Sensory evaluation demonstrated peripheral fusion and reduced stereoacuity. Neither prism correction nor manipulation of the refractive errors corrected the diplopia. A partially occlusive foil (Bangerter) of density ranging from 0.4 to 1.0 was placed in front of the affected eye to restore stable, single vision. RESULTS: The Bangerter foil eliminated the diplopia in all patients. Two patients elected not to wear the foil; 1 patient was afraid of becoming dependent, and the other was bothered by the visual blur. visual acuity in the affected eye was reduced on average by 3 lines. All patients maintained the same level of sensory fusion, with only 2 having reduced stereoacuity. Symptoms returned when the foil was removed or its density was reduced. CONCLUSION: Low-density Bangerter foils provide an effective, inexpensive, and aesthetically acceptable management for refractory binocular diplopia induced by macular pathology, allowing peripheral fusion to be maintained.
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ranking = 5.0570043197942
keywords = epiretinal membrane, epiretinal, membrane
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4/190. Ocular toxocariasis: a rare presentation of a posterior pole granuloma with an associated choroidal neovascular membrane.

    BACKGROUND: Ocular toxocariasis is a rare infection caused by the nematode larvae of toxocara canis, which is commonly found in dogs. Human transmission is usually via geophagia, the ingestion of food contaminated with the toxocara eggs, or contact with infected puppies, often resulting in devastating ocular and/or systemic effects. Distribution is worldwide; however, a higher incidence is demonstrated in the united states. methods: A 17-year-old black woman sought treatment at a neighborhood health center with a report of gradual decrease in vision from her left eye over a 3-month period. Her ocular and systemic histories were unremarkable. Anterior segment evaluation revealed no signs of anterior uveitis. The posterior pole showed a 1.5 DD, round, raised, white, subretinal lesion adjacent to the fovea with an overlying serous retinal detachment and retinal hemorrhage. RESULTS: She was referred to a retinologist who performed both fluorescein and indocyanine green (ICG) angiographies. A serum toxocara ELISA test was also ordered. fluorescein angiography revealed hyperfluorescence consistent with the granuloma. The ICG demonstrated an occult choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) underlying the area of hemorrhage inferotemporal to the granuloma. CONCLUSION: This paper illustrates the case presentation and includes an extensive review of the ocular and systemic manifestations of toxocariases. A description of ICG videoangiography, therapeutic approaches, and management will also be discussed.
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ranking = 0.02614934749161
keywords = membrane
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5/190. incidence of vitreoretinal pathologic conditions within 24 months after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    OBJECTIVE: To report for the first time a case series of vitreoretinal pathologic conditions after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and to determine its incidence. DESIGN: Case series. PARTICIPANTS: Five refractive surgeons and 29,916 eyes that underwent surgical correction of ametropia (83.2% were myopic) ranging from -0.75 to -29.00 diopters (D; mean: -6.19 D) and from 1.00 to 6.00 D (mean: 3.23 D) participated in this retrospective study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Vitreoretinal complications after LASIK. RESULTS: The clinical findings of 20 eyes (17 patients) with LASIK-related vitreoretinal pathologic conditions are presented. Fourteen eyes experienced rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RDs). Two eyes experienced corneoscleral perforations with the surgical microkeratome when a corneal flap was being performed (one experienced a vitreous hemorrhage and the other later experienced an RD). In four eyes, retinal tears without RDs were found. In one eye, a juxtafoveal choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM) developed. Retinal tears were treated with argon laser retinopexy or cryotherapy. Corneoscleral perforations were sutured, and the RD was managed with vitrectomy. The remaining RDs were managed with vitrectomy, cryoretinopexy, scleral buckling, argon laser retinopexy, or pneumatic retinopexy techniques. The CNVM was surgically removed. The incidence of vitreoretinal pathologic conditions determined in our study was 0.06%. CONCLUSIONS: Serious complications after LASIK are infrequent. Vitreoretinal pathologic conditions, if managed promptly, will still result in good vision. It is very important to inform patients that LASIK only corrects the refractive aspect of myopia. Complications of the myopic eye will persist.
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ranking = 0.0052298694983219
keywords = membrane
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6/190. diagnosis of vitreoretinal adhesions in macular disease with optical coherence tomography.

    PURPOSE: To compare the relative incidence of vitreoretinal adhesions associated with partial vitreous separation within the macula diagnosed with optical coherence tomography (OCT) with that of those diagnosed with biomicroscopy. methods: The authors obtained linear cross-sectional retinal images using OCT in patients with selected macular diseases. Additional studies included biomicroscopy, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and B-scan ultrasonography. RESULTS: Optical coherence tomography was performed on 132 eyes of 119 patients. Vitreoretinal adhesions within the macula were identified using OCT in 39 eyes (30%) with the following diagnoses: idiopathic epiretinal membrane (n = 13), diabetic retinopathy (n = 7), idiopathic macular hole (n = 7), cystoid macular edema (n = 7), and vitreomacular traction syndrome (n = 5). Biomicroscopy identified vitreoretinal adhesions in only 11 eyes (8%). Two distinct vitreoretinal adhesion patterns were identified with OCT, each associated with partial separation of the posterior hyaloid face: focal (n = 25) and multifocal (n = 14). CONCLUSIONS: Optical coherence tomography is more sensitive than biomicroscopy in identifying vitreoretinal adhesions associated with macular disease.
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ranking = 5.0570043197942
keywords = epiretinal membrane, epiretinal, membrane
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7/190. Submacular surgery to remove choroidal neovascularization associated with central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PURPOSE: To report the results of submacular surgery for removal of choroidal neovascularization associated with central serous chorioretinopathy. methods: Ten eyes of nine consecutive patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and subfoveal or juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization underwent pars plana vitrectomy with removal of the choroidal neovascular membrane between January 1994 and January 1999.RESULTS: All 10 eyes (nine patients) were followed postoperatively for at least 6 months. The mean postoperative follow-up was 23 months (range, 6 to 56.5 months). The patients were followed for an average of 6.2 months from the time of symptoms to the removal of the choroidal neovascularization. Preoperative mean best-corrected visual acuity was 20/100 (range, 20/25 to 20/400), and postoperative best-corrected mean visual acuity was 20/60 2 (range, 20/20 to 20/400). Seven eyes had improved postoperative visual acuity, with an average of 3.4 lines gained. Of the three eyes that had worse acuity, an average of 1.3 lines of visual acuity was lost; final mean postoperative visual acuity was 20/80 1 (range, 20/25 to 20/400). Of the six eyes with symptoms of less than 3 months' duration, four had a final visual acuity of 20/50 or better. All three eyes with 20/300 or worse final visual acuity had loss of foveal retinal pigment epithelium after surgery; the remaining eyes had preserved retinal pigment epithelium with a visual acuity of 20/70 or better. Two eyes had intraoperative peripheral retinal tears, and two eyes had recurrence of the choroidal neovascular complex. CONCLUSIONS: The anatomic and visual results in eyes with choroidal neovascularization associated with central serous chorioretinopathy are modestly encouraging and suggest that submacular surgery for choroidal neovascularization in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy is a treatment option that may salvage good macular function in some eyes.
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ranking = 0.0052298694983219
keywords = membrane
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8/190. True exfoliation of the lens capsule following uveitis.

    PURPOSE: To report a rare case of true exfoliation of the lens capsule following panuveitis, with slit-lamp photographs before and following the development of the true exfoliation. methods: Case report. review of the history and clinical features of a 70-year-old woman who developed true exfoliation during the treatment for panuveitis. RESULTS: After 7 months of treatment for bilateral panuveitis with topical steroid and tropicamide, the patient developed a thin, transparent membrane arising on the lens surface in the right eye. A diagnosis of true exfoliation of the lens capsule was made. CONCLUSIONS: True exfoliation of the lens capsule following uveitis may occur due to the weakening of the anterior capsule by metabolic disorder caused by uveitis and precipitated by repeated mydriasis.
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ranking = 0.0052298694983219
keywords = membrane
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9/190. Complications of ocular paintball injuries in children.

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the ocular complications of paintball injuries in children. methods: The clinical course of four children with traumatic ocular paintball injuries was evaluated. All patients underwent a complete ocular examination. Their age, injuries sustained, surgical procedure(s) performed, presence of protective eyewear at the time of injury, and final visual outcome was assessed. The presence of directly related anterior and posterior segment abnormalities were also evaluated. RESULTS: Four boys sustained traumatic paintball injuries. Average patient age was 11.25 years (range: 10-12 years). None of the children were wearing ocular or facial protection at the time of the initial injury. All patients had hyphema and traumatic cataract, and some form of retinal pathology (vitreous hemorrhage, epiretinal membrane, retinal hemorrhage, and choroidal rupture). One child had a partial-thickness corneal laceration that did not require surgical intervention. All other patients underwent ophthalmic surgery. Final visual acuity was 20/30 or better in two patients, and 20/100 or worse in the others. The cause of decreased visual acuity in these children was directly related to macular pathology. CONCLUSION: Ocular injuries resulting from paintball impact are often severe and usually occur when the participants are not wearing eye protection or this protection becomes dislodged. Treatment of these injuries is sometimes limited to an attempt to salvage what remains of useful vision. Unfortunately, most of these sports-related injuries could have been prevented if patients wore adequate eye protection when involved in this sport.
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ranking = 5.0570043197942
keywords = epiretinal membrane, epiretinal, membrane
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10/190. Autologous blood injection for marked overfiltration early after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C.

    PURPOSE: After trabeculectomy with mitomycin C, extremely low intraocular pressure (IOP) with excess filtration may cause hypotonous maculopathy in the early postoperative period. We evaluated the effect of injecting autologous blood on reversing early postoperative marked hypotony after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. methods: trabeculectomy with mitomycin C was performed in 258 eyes between 1994 and 1998. Peribleb autologous blood injection was performed in five eyes in which pressure patches were ineffective in reversing excess filtration. Approximately 0.1 to 0.3 ml of whole unclotted blood was slowly injected at least 3 mm from the edge of the flap using a sterile 27-gauge needle. RESULTS: None of these eyes developed hypotonous maculopathy after injection. After a mean 31-month follow-up, all eyes had well-controlled IOP and visual acuity in three eyes was much improved. postoperative complications included mild IOP elevation in one eye treated with laser suturelysis, and fibrinous pupillary membrane in one eye. CONCLUSION: In the early postoperative period, autologous blood injection is effective in reversing excess filtration.
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ranking = 0.0052298694983219
keywords = membrane
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