Cases reported "Retinal Diseases"

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1/75. association of antiphospholipid antibodies with retinal vascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence and characteristics of retinal vascular disease in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to analyze their relationship with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and other serological markers. patients AND methods: Eighty-two consecutive patients (77 women and 5 men; mean age, 36 years) were studied. All patients fulfilled the 1982 revised criteria of the American College of rheumatology for the classification of SLE. Ophthalmologic examination included assessment of best corrected visual acuity, tonometry, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and fundus examination. Serologic studies included determination of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) (ELISA), lupus anticoagulant (LA) (coagulation tests), antinuclear antibodies (indirect immunofluorescence), anti-dna (Farr's test), and anti-ENA antibodies (counterimmunoelectrophoresis). RESULTS: Retinal vascular disease was detected in 13 (15%) of 82 SLE patients. The retinal lesions consisted of retinal vascular occlusions in six patients (five arterial and one venous), cotton-wool spots in three, optic disc edema in three, retinal hemorrhages in three, and ischemic optic neuropathy in one. Antiphospholipid antibodies were detected in 10 (77%) of these 13 patients: nine had aCL and two had the LA. When compared with patients without retinal vascular disease, patients with retinopathy had a higher prevalence of aPL (77% v. 29%, P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: Retinal vascular disease is frequent in patients with SLE. The presence of aPL is associated with a higher prevalence of retinal abnormalities in SLE patients.
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ranking = 1
keywords = vascular disease
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2/75. The 22-kDa antigen in optic nerve and retinal diseases.

    OBJECTIVE: patients with unexplained visual loss were evaluated for the possibility of immunologic involvement. Antibody reactions were sought that might identify a common indication of retinal hypersensitivity. methods: The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis were used to identify autoantibody reactions with retina and optic nerve components. Comparisons were made with the autoantibody reaction of normal subjects and patients with recognized forms of retinal decay: macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetic retinopathy, and paraneoplastic retinopathy. RESULTS: Eight patients, one man and seven women, were found to produce an autoantibody reaction with retina and optic nerve, including a novel 22-kDa neuronal antigen present within the retina and optic nerve. One of the eight had retinopathy associated with melanoma (MAR syndrome). Seven of the eight patients had electroretinogram abnormalities, varying from mild to severe. Six displayed features of optic atrophy. One patient with progressive visual loss had visual function stabilized after immunosuppressive therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In the eight cases described, unexplained visual loss was associated with autoantibody reactions with retina and optic nerve, including a common antibody reaction with a 22-kDa neuronal antigen found in the retina and optic nerve. All the patients had either an abnormal electroretinogram or optic atrophy. Six patients had both. The 22-kDa immunologic marker may not be directly involved in the patient's vision loss, but rather may be related to a nonspecific destruction of retina and optic nerve. However, the marker may be useful in identifying a specific subgroup of patients for further analysis.
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ranking = 0.35295494437883
keywords = diabetic
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3/75. Optical cross-sectional observation of resolved diabetic macular edema associated with vitreomacular separation.

    PURPOSE: To describe the resolution of cystoid macular edema associated with vitreomacular separation in a diabetic patient. methods: Case report. A 58-year-old man who had cataract surgery 3 years earlier developed diabetic macular edema after panretinal laser photocoagulation. For a detailed fundus examination, we performed neodymium: YAG (Nd:YAG) laser capsulotomy in the left eye as the initial management. RESULTS: Two days after the laser capsulotomy, fundus biomicroscopy and B-mode ultrasonography disclosed a vitreomacular separation in the left eye that was not detectable preoperatively. Optical coherence tomography through the macula disclosed a dramatic decrease in the size of intraretinal cystoid spaces with an improvement of visual acuity. Scanning retinal thickness analysis also confirmed the decrease of retinal thickness at the macula with the resolution of cystoid macular edema. CONCLUSION: Resolution of diabetic macular edema with subsequent visual recovery is potentially associated with the vitreomacular separation in a patient after Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy.
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ranking = 2.4706846106518
keywords = diabetic
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4/75. diagnosis of vitreoretinal adhesions in macular disease with optical coherence tomography.

    PURPOSE: To compare the relative incidence of vitreoretinal adhesions associated with partial vitreous separation within the macula diagnosed with optical coherence tomography (OCT) with that of those diagnosed with biomicroscopy. methods: The authors obtained linear cross-sectional retinal images using OCT in patients with selected macular diseases. Additional studies included biomicroscopy, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and B-scan ultrasonography. RESULTS: Optical coherence tomography was performed on 132 eyes of 119 patients. Vitreoretinal adhesions within the macula were identified using OCT in 39 eyes (30%) with the following diagnoses: idiopathic epiretinal membrane (n = 13), diabetic retinopathy (n = 7), idiopathic macular hole (n = 7), cystoid macular edema (n = 7), and vitreomacular traction syndrome (n = 5). Biomicroscopy identified vitreoretinal adhesions in only 11 eyes (8%). Two distinct vitreoretinal adhesion patterns were identified with OCT, each associated with partial separation of the posterior hyaloid face: focal (n = 25) and multifocal (n = 14). CONCLUSIONS: Optical coherence tomography is more sensitive than biomicroscopy in identifying vitreoretinal adhesions associated with macular disease.
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ranking = 0.35295494437883
keywords = diabetic
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5/75. Lipaemia retinalis in a case of juvenile diabetic ketoacidosis.

    A rare case of diabetic retinal lipaemia is described in a 5-year-old child.
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ranking = 1.7647747218941
keywords = diabetic
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6/75. Echographic evaluation of a patient with diabetes and dense vitreous hemorrhage: an avulsed retinal vessel may mimic a tractional retinal detachment.

    PURPOSE: To report that an avulsed retinal vessel may appear as a tractional retinal detachment on echographic evaluation. methods: Case report. RESULTS: A 57-year-old diabetic woman presented with a nonclearing vitreous hemorrhage of 2 months duration in the left eye. Echography was consistent with a localized tractional retinal detachment on longitudinal sections; transverse sections demonstrated a pinpoint opacity in the vitreous cavity. Intraoperatively, an avulsed retinal vessel was noted in the area of echographic abnormality. CONCLUSION: An avulsed retinal vessel may mimic tractional retinal detachment on echography. Although trained ophthalmic echographers routinely perform both longitudinal and transverse sections during an echographic evaluation, less skilled observers must be aware of the importance of performing both longitudinal and transverse sections for accurate echographic diagnosis.
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ranking = 0.35295494437883
keywords = diabetic
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7/75. central serous chorioretinopathy after bone marrow transplantation.

    PURPOSE: To describe central serous chorioretinopathy after bone marrow transplantation. methods: The medical records of the patient were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: A 46-year-old Filipino man developed multifocal central serous chorioretinopathy affecting his left eye 4 months after bone marrow transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia. Other co-existing medical problems at the time of presentation included systemic hypertension and graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), for which the patient was using both systemic corticosteroids and cyclosporine. CONCLUSION: central serous chorioretinopathy is a rare cause of vision loss in patients after bone marrow transplantation. Previous descriptions of bone marrow transplantation-associated central serous chorioretinopathy in patients with thrombotic microangiopathy, as well as the occurrence of both systemic hypertension and the use of systemic corticosteroids and cyclosporine in our patient with bone marrow transplantation-associated central serous chorioretinopathy, support theories of choroidal vascular compromise in the pathogenesis of central serous chorioretinopathy.
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ranking = 0.64607840768205
keywords = microangiopathy
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8/75. True, true and related?

    Several chorioretinal lesions have been observed that are associated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT), such as cotton-wool spots, macular stars, ischemic changes due to microangiopathy, "BMT retinopathy" and choroidal infiltration. Central serous retinopathy (CSR) has rarely been described in the BMT setting. We present a patient who underwent allogeneic BMT and subsequently developed severe chronic graft versus host disease (CGvHD) complicated with CSR.
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ranking = 0.64607840768205
keywords = microangiopathy
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9/75. Retinal ischemia in diabetic retinopathy.

    Eight patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy developed extensive retinal arteriolar and capillary obstruction. ophthalmoscopy showed many white, thread-like retinal arterioles associated with capillary and venous dilatation. Widespread retinal arteriolar and capillary nonperfusion was demonstrated by fluorescein angiography. Ischemic maculopathy resulted in severe loss of visual acuity in some eyes. The severe degree of retinal ischemia was accompanied by optic disc pallor and neovascularization and a high incidence of rubeosis iridis with neovascular glaucoma. patients with this variety of diabetic retinopathy have a poor prognosis of retaining useful vision.
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ranking = 2.117729666273
keywords = diabetic
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10/75. Retinal angiopathy and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.

    PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and angiographic features of patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, exudative detachment of the macula, and an associated retinal microangiopathy. methods: Case series. RESULTS: Four patients with chronic exudative detachment of the macula with a variable degree of lipid deposition are described. The retina in the detached area, but not beyond, was noted to have a microangiopathy. There was capillary telangiectasia, microaneurysm formation, patchy nonperfusion, and intraretinal leakage. In each patient, there were no other retinal vascular changes in the fundus of either eye. The fluorescein angiogram showed subretinal leakage suspicious for occult choroidal neovascularization. The indocyanine green angiogram showed the presence of underlying polypoidal choroidal neovascularization, accounting for the exudative detachment. After photocoagulation, the retinal angiopathy improved, but not completely. CONCLUSION: Retinal microangiopathy may occur in a chronic macular detachment secondary to polypoidal choroidal neovascularization. The development of these secondary retinal changes is not clearly understood; however, hypoxia from the chronic detachment, a neurotoxic effect from the lipid deposition, or a biochemically induced microvascular abnormality from secretion of vasogenic mediators are possible mechanisms. indocyanine green angiography is helpful in making a definitive diagnosis. Clinicians should be aware that a retinal microangiopathy may occur in such eyes so that the proper diagnosis can be made and appropriate treatment administered.
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ranking = 2.5843136307282
keywords = microangiopathy
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