Cases reported "Retinal Hemorrhage"

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1/73. White-centred retinal haemorrhages (Roth spots).

    Roth spots (white-centred retinal haemorrhages) were classically described as septic emboli lodged in the retina of patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis. Indeed many have considered Roth spots pathognomonic for this condition. More recent histological evidence suggests, however, that they are not foci of bacterial abscess. Instead, they are nonspecific and may be found in many other diseases. A review of the histology and the pathogenesis of these white-centred haemorrhages will be provided, along with the work-up of the differential diagnosis.
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2/73. Recurrent malignant hypertension: a report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Malignant hypertension (MHT) is a rare and life-threatening condition which is defined clinically as severe hypertension accompanied by bilateral retinal haemorrhages and/or hard exudates, with or without papilloedema. If untreated, the prognosis of MHT is poor. With MHT being a relatively rare condition, it would be unusual to see it on more than one occasion in the same patient. We describe in detail two cases from a disease register of 400 cases of MHT seen in one medical centre over 33 years.
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3/73. Preretinal haemorrhages: an unusual manifestation of intravitreal amikacin toxicity.

    PURPOSE: To report a case with multiple preretinal haemorrhages after intravitreal amikacin. METHOD: A 58-year-old patient developed postoperative endophthalmitis following a routine extracapsular cataract extraction in his left eye. He received two intravitreal injections of cephazoline (2.25 mg) and amikacin (0.4 mg), given 48 h apart. RESULTS: The patient presented to us with large preretinal haemorrhages at the posterior pole. Multiple large areas of blocked fluorescence were seen on fundus fluorescein angiography. CONCLUSION: Widespread posterior pole preretinal haemorrhages may be an unusual manifestation of intravitreal amikacin toxicity.
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4/73. Intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator in submacular haemorrhage.

    Submacular haemorrhage is a major cause of sudden visual loss in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). If left untreated it often results in permanent central visual loss. We present our experience in the use of intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in a 65-year-old male with submacular haemorrhage.
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5/73. Ocular decompression retinopathy after resolution of acute primary angle closure glaucoma.

    A patient presented with acute primary angle closure glaucoma with markedly elevated intraocular pressure. Two weeks after laser peripheral iridotomy and resolution of the acute attack, the patient was noted to have developed scattered retinal haemorrhages. The haemorrhages resolved over time with no visual sequelae. This is the first reported case of ocular decompression retinopathy after resolution of acute primary angle closure glaucoma.
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6/73. Cavernous haemangioma of the retina and optic disc. A report of three cases and a review of the literature.

    We report characteristics of three cases of cavernous haemangioma of the retina, bringing to 37 the number now reported in the available literature. This rare, benign, congenital malformation is non-progressive, usually unilateral, somewhat more frequent in women, and rarely a source of intraocular haemorrhage. The fluorescein angiographic features include a normal arterial and venous supply, extraordinarily slowed venous drainage, no arterio-venous shunting, no disturbances of vascular permeability, and no secondary retinal exudation. Almost always, isolated clusters of vascular globules with plasma/erythrocyte sedimentation surround the main body of the malformation. These findings differentiate the anomaly from other retinal vascular diseases. Therapeutic intervention is seldom necessary.
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7/73. factor vii deficiency in a patient with retinal arteriolar tortuosity syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To report a pedigree with hereditary retinal arteriolar tortuosity with macular haemorrhage and abnormality of the coagulation system. methods: Case report and literature review. RESULTS: A 49-year-old woman was referred due to macular haemorrhage in both eyes. Her 16-year-old son had recurrent retinal haemorrhages which presented at age 16 years and had mild retinal arteriolar tortuosity. Coagulation studies in the son revealed normal activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and 30% activity of factor VII. CONCLUSIONS: factor vii deficiency may aggravate the haemorrhages in retinal arteriolar tortuosity syndrome. We therefore suggest conducting routine coagulation studies (PT, APTT) in all patients with retinal arteriolar tortuosity syndrome. Determination of factor VII activity is warranted only in patients with normal APTT and prolonged PT.
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8/73. Retinal haemorrhage and fatal stroke in an infant with fibromuscular dysplasia.

    Non-accidental injury should be suspected and excluded in any infant found to have intracranial and retinal haemorrhage of unknown aetiology. This can be a sensitive issue for both medical staff and parents. We present a case in which the underlying cause of intracranial and retinal haemorrhage was fibromuscular dysplasia. It was a diagnosis made only at postmortem examination and it illustrates the diagnostic difficulty such cases may present.
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9/73. Papilloedema with peripapillary retinal haemorrhages in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient with cryptococcal meningitis.

    A case of cryptococcal meningitis in an AIDS patient who presented with optic disc edema, bilateral retinal and peripapillary haemorrhages is reported.
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10/73. Benign idiopathic haemorrhagic retinopathy.

    PURPOSE: To describe a new condition characterised by an unusual unilateral idiopathic haemorrhagic retinopathy. methods: A review is presented of patient histories from 5 patients with acute-onset unilateral idiopathic haemorrhagic retinopathy, including results of ophthalmological, haematological and fluorescein angiographic examinations. RESULTS: All patients had an extensive deep blot haemorrhagic retinopathy without significant vascular signs or abnormal optic discs. In 4 cases the haemorrhage was sufficiently severe to break through into the vitreous. fluorescein angiography demonstrated normal arteriovenous flow, without capillary non-perfusion, vessel or disc leakage. Disc swelling, macular oedema and cotton wool spots were not seen at any stage in these patients. All patients recovered the visual acuity in the affected eye by 4 months. Systemic examination in all cases was unremarkable. CONCLUSION: This distinct and rare form of retinopathy is important to define since it has a good prognosis without treatment.
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