Cases reported "Retinal Hemorrhage"

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1/582. Human psychophysical analysis of receptive field-like properties: V. Adaptation of stationary and moving windmill target characteristics to clinical populations.

    This paper describes the application of several key parameters of a windmill-shaped target (used in determinations of the psychophysical transient-like function) to clinical populations as a diagnostic tool for static perimetry. A technique for independently analyzing sustained- (Westheimer function) and transient-like retinally-based psychophysical responses is outlined, and stimulus characteristics, reliability and diagnostic potential of the tests are examined. Several particularly interesting clinical cases (one closure of a branch retinal arteriole) and two senile macular degeneration patients) are presented for illustrative purposes. In addition, a tentative 'working hypothesis' is presented as a basis for extensive future analysis of various clinical populations. ( info)

2/582. Retinal venous macroaneurysm associated with premacular hemorrhage.

    To report an unusual association of a retinal venous macroaneurysm with premacular hemorrhage in a 50-year-old man, using a case report method. The patient exhibited a dense premacular hemorrhage in the left eye. fluorescein angiography demonstrated that the source of bleeding was an isolated retinal venous macroaneurysm. The anterior surface of the hematoma was opened with an argon green laser, resulting in rapid clearing of the premacular hemorrhage and improvement in vision. Treatment of the retina surrounding the macroaneurysm to prevent recurrence of bleeding was ineffective to achieve occlusion of the lesion. No recurrent hemorrhage occurred during the observation period. Retinal venous macroaneurysm, a quite rare condition, may be complicated by premacular hemorrhage. argon green laser may be useful in treating such hemorrhage. Hemorrhagic detachment of the internal limiting membrane or subhyaloid hemorrhage in the macula may occur after retinal vessel rupture with physical exertion (Valsalva retinopathy) or in retinal vascular diseases, such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and retinal arterial macroaneurysm. Arterial macroaneurysms are a common, well-described retinal vascular disorder. In contrast to retinal arterial macroaneurysms, retinal venous macroaneurysms are quite rare. In this article we describe a patient who presented with premacular hemorrhage that was caused by a retinal venous macroaneurysm. The hematoma and the macroaneurysm were treated with argon green laser. ( info)

3/582. Successful treatment of acute subretinal hemorrhage in age-related macular degeneration by combined intravitreal injection of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and gas.

    Subretinal hemorrhage secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has a poor visual prognosis. Surgical drainage of the blood improves visual acuity only in selected patients. We report on two elderly patients with spontaneous subretinal hemorrhage from AMD. In one eye, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA), combined with a long-acting gas (SF6), was injected into the vitreous cavity. The other eye was treated first by gas instillation followed 3 days later by rTPA injection. Both treatments led to nearly complete displacement of the subretinal hemorrhage from the macular region. In both eyes, an inferior exudative retinal detachment reabsorbed spontaneously within 2 weeks. Bilateral vitreous opacities after rTPA injection resolved without further treatment. Postoperative visual acuity increased to 0.3 and 0.4. The combined treatment is a valuable method for management of acute subretinal hemorrhage. Rapid displacement of this abnormality can minimize clot-induced damage of the highly sensitive macula and increase visual acuity. ( info)

4/582. Iatrogenic breaks in Buuch's membrane in choroidal melanoma.

    Three patients with choroidal melanoma have been observed to develop subretinal hemorrhages associated with their ocular examinations. One hemorrhage appears to have been caused by transillumination, while two others have occurred during radioactive phosphorus testing. Histopathology confirms defects in Bruch's membrane through which blood or tumor cells have entered the subretinal space. ( info)

5/582. Late-form hemorrhagic disease of the newborn: a fatal case report with illustration of investigations that may assist in avoiding the mistaken diagnosis of child abuse.

    Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN) is usually a self-limiting hemorrhagic disorder of childhood that occurs as a result of vitamin k deficiency. It may be defined as early or late form depending on the time of onset related to birth. HDN is recognized as one of several bleeding disorders that can mimic the findings of nonaccidental head injury and may lead to a mistaken diagnosis of child abuse. We present a single fatal case of late-onset HDN with illustration of hematologic assays that can be performed to assist the pathologist in making the correct diagnosis of HDN. ( info)

6/582. White-centred retinal haemorrhages (Roth spots).

    Roth spots (white-centred retinal haemorrhages) were classically described as septic emboli lodged in the retina of patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis. Indeed many have considered Roth spots pathognomonic for this condition. More recent histological evidence suggests, however, that they are not foci of bacterial abscess. Instead, they are nonspecific and may be found in many other diseases. A review of the histology and the pathogenesis of these white-centred haemorrhages will be provided, along with the work-up of the differential diagnosis. ( info)

7/582. Bilateral periopticointrascleral hemorrhages associated with traumatic child abuse.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of bilateral periopticoscleral hemorrhages associated with traumatic child abuse. methods: Postmortem gross examination and histopathologic studies of both eyes and the optic nerves of a 6-month-old infant who died from subdural hematoma. RESULTS: Gross examination and histopathologic step sections disclosed bilateral intrascleral hemorrhages around both optic nerves. In addition, bilateral diffuse multilayered retinal, vitreous, and sublaminar (beneath the internal limiting membrane) hemorrhages were present. CONCLUSION: Periopticointrascleral hemorrhages are characteristic of blunt head trauma and may constitute important forensic evidence in cases of suspected child abuse. ( info)

8/582. early diagnosis of pediatric Wernicke's encephalopathy.

    Wernicke's encephalopathy may be fatal if untreated. Because Wernicke's encephalopathy is suspected to be underdiagnosed in children, the authors wished to assess the frequency of overlooked diagnosis and to establish pertinent findings that could lead to early identification of pediatric Wernicke's encephalopathy. The authors performed multiple literature searches seeking pediatric patients with Wernicke's encephalopathy (age = 20 years or younger). A total of 30 patients was found, and the authors added a new patient. Each case report had its clinical, radiologic, and laboratory data, diagnostic method, and outcome analyzed. Of 31 patients, 16 were female and 15 male; the median age /- S.D. was 11 /- 6.5 years. The most frequent underlying disorder was malignancy in 11. Thirteen patients died undiagnosed, 16 recovered with thiamine therapy (eight with sequelae), and two died of infection soon after thiamine replacement was initiated. Only six presented with the Wernicke's encephalopathy clinical triad (mental status changes, ocular signs, and ataxia) at neurologic onset; nine eventually demonstrated this triad. The high rate of patients diagnosed only at postmortem examination (41.9%) confirms that Wernicke's encephalopathy is underdiagnosed in children. thiamine therapy is warranted if any component of the Wernicke's encephalopathy triad is present in an appropriate clinical setting. ( info)

9/582. Retinal hemorrhages caused by accidental household trauma.

    Traumatic retinal hemorrhages in young children are considered pathognomonic of child abuse. We identified 3 children with unilateral retinal hemorrhages caused by accidental household trauma. The hemorrhages were ipsilateral to intracranial hemorrhage and isolated to the posterior retinal pole. ( info)

10/582. Central retinal vein occlusion during remission of ulcerative colitis.

    BACKGROUND: Retinal vascular disease is a rare complication of ulcerative colitis. CASE: We report a patient who developed unilateral nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) (papillophlebitis) without any other retinal vascular disease during remission of ulcerative colitis. OBSERVATIONS: The best-corrected visual acuities were 1.5 OD and 0.7 OS. Dilated and tortuous retinal veins and retinal bleeding were seen in the left eye. macular edema and leakage from the papilla and the retinal veins of the left eye were evident on fluorescein angiography. After increased dosage of systemic prednisolone was prescribed, the retinal vascular changes resulting from CRVO (papillophlebitis) in the left eye gradually abated. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal vascular diseases should be monitored during both remission and activation of intestinal symptoms of ulcerative colitis. ( info)
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