Cases reported "retinal hemorrhage"

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11/582. Bilateral macular hemorrhage after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    BACKGROUND: This is the first report of a bilateral submacular hemorrhage after LASIK surgery in an extreme myo pic patient. A 31-year-old man underwent bilateral surgery for correction of -16.75 0.75x70 degrees and -16.50 0.50x55 degrees. methods: Case report. RESULTS: One day after surgery the patient's uncorrected visual acuity was in the 20/50 range OU and by 17 days after surgery his visual acuity had declined to 20/200 range. Fundus examination showed multifocal subretinal macular and posterior pole hemorrhages. fluorescein angiography showed some macular lesions compatible with lacquer cracks. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative and postoperative fundus examination is important to detect this phenomenon. patients should be informed of this rare complication. ( info)

12/582. Ophthalmic manifestation of congenital protein c deficiency.

    Under normal conditions activated protein C is a natural anticoagulant that cleaves 2 activated coagulation factors, factor va and factor viiia, thereby inhibiting the conversion of factor X to factor xa and of prothrombin to thrombin. Additionally, activated protein C enhances tissue-plasminogen activator-mediated fibrinolysis by inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. This results in an increase in circulatory plasminogen activator levels. protein c deficiency, a genetic or acquired thrombophilic abnormality, has been demonstrated to predispose to episodes of potentially blinding and lethal thromboembolic events. Heterozygous-deficient subjects usually remain asymptomatic until adolescence or adulthood. In homozygous-deficient patients, protein C activity is usually less than 1% (reference range, 70%-140%), resulting in thromboembolism as early as in the neonatal period. The major clinical symptoms in affected newborn infants have been purpura fulminans, vitreous hemorrhage, and central nervous system thrombosis. The age of onset of the first symptoms has ranged from a few hours to 2 weeks after birth, usually after an uncomplicated full-term pregnancy and delivery. In contrast to the genetic form, acquired neonatal protein c deficiency occurs particularly in ill preterm babies. Typical complications of prematurity such as respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, and neonatal sepsis may also be present. In the medical literature, there are only a few reports of homozygous protein c deficiency in neonates. We present 2 cases of homozygous protein c deficiency with ocular and extraocular manifestation. ( info)

13/582. Partial retinal artery occlusion after coil embolization of an intracerebral aneurysm.

    Occlusion of the retinal artery is a rare complication after therapeutic embolization. We present a case of a partial retinal artery obstruction following coil embolization of an intracerebral aneurysm. To our knowledge, only six cases of acute occlusion of the choroidal and/or retinal arteries after therapeutic embolization have been reported so far. The case presented here, however, is the first in which platinum microcoils were the material used. In addition the retinal ischemia was reversible, visual acuity returning to normal and cutten-wool spot and retinal hemorrhages resolving spontaneously. ( info)

14/582. persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous: MRI.

    persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV), a developmental cause of leukocoria, is due to incomplete regression of the fetal blood supply to the eye. We report the MRI features of PHPV of the dorsal type to facilitate differential diagnosis from other causes of leukocoria, namely retinoblastoma, which may have major therapeutic consequences. ( info)

15/582. Surgical treatment of submacular hemorrhage associated with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.

    PURPOSE: To report the visual outcome of surgical treatment of submacular hemorrhage associated with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. methods: Eight eyes of eight consecutive patients with thick submacular hemorrhages associated with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and tissue plasminogen activator-assisted removal of subretinal blood (December 1995 to September 1997) or intravitreal 100% sulfur hexafluoride gas injection without tissue plasminogen activator (October 1997 to March 1998). RESULTS: Postoperatively, laser treatment was performed for active polypoidal lesions outside the foveal avascular zone in four eyes. A retinal pigment epithelial tear was seen outside the foveal avascular zone in three eyes, and one eye developed a retinal detachment. The best-corrected visual acuity improved (by 3 or more lines) or stabilized in seven of the eight eyes. Four eyes had a final best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and three eyes had a final best-corrected visual acuity of 20/50 to 20/200. In one eye, the visual acuity decreased from 20/100 to 20/500 because of the development of a subfoveal neovascular membrane. The membrane was excised, and histologic examination showed fibrovascular tissue between the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (type 2 pattern). CONCLUSIONS: Surgical intervention may be of benefit in eyes with submacular hemorrhage associated with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. ( info)

16/582. Unilateral retinal hemorrhages in documented cases of child abuse.

    PURPOSE: To describe the occurrence of unilateral retinal hemorrhages in four cases of documented child abuse, including a case in which retinal hemorrhages were an incidental finding on routine examination. methods: case reports. RESULTS: Three children, 5 to 17 months of age, with suspected child abuse had fundus examinations with a dilated pupil as part of their evaluation. An additional child, 6 months of age, received fundus examination with a dilated pupil as part of follow-up for regressed retinopathy of prematurity. Each of the four children had extensive retinal or preretinal hemorrhages in one eye only. Three of the four had ecchymoses on the ipsilateral face or neck. Two had evidence of bone fractures on skeletal surveys. All four had neuroimaging that documented cerebral hemorrhage or infarct. In all four cases an adult caretaker was found responsible for shaking, choking, or squeezing the child. One child died. Two had resolution of retinal hemorrhage, whereas one required vitrectomy. All three had at least partial recovery of vision in the affected eye after amblyopia treatment. CONCLUSION: In cases of documented child abuse, unilateral retinal or preretinal hemorrhages may be present. Ophthalmologists should recognize that unilateral retinal or preretinal hemorrhages may be associated with child abuse. ( info)

17/582. Natural interferon therapy: optic nerve ischemic damage?

    The purpose of this study was the evaluation of retinal abnormalities during a treatment with natural interferon (IFN-alpha for chronic hepatitis c. Retinal hemorrhages and optic disk edema were found in a 40-year-old woman during IFN-alpha therapy. The disk edema and retinopathy resolved after the INF was discontinued. Although retinal abnormalities correlated with IFN therapy have been described recently by some authors, the pathogenesis is still unclear. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy occurring in a patient treated with IFN is a probable complication of the therapy. ( info)

18/582. Central retinal vein occlusion: report of two familial cases.

    The authors report a 46-year-old father and 17-year-old son who each presented with unilateral central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and bilateral abnormalities of retinal vascular perfusion. The son presented with a nonperfused CRVO in the left eye, developed traction-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment treated with vitreous surgery, and developed prolonged arteriovenous filling in the retina of the fellow eye. The father presented with progressive CRVO in the right eye, developed choroido-vitreal neovascularization following laser treatment to create a chorioretinal anastomosis, underwent vitrectomy for retinal detachment and vitreous hemorrhage in that eye, and developed prolonged arm-eye and retinal arteriovenous circulation times in the fellow eye. An extensive evaluation (including hematological studies and imaging of the major vessels of the neck) failed to reveal a predisposing cause in either patient although echocardiography disclosed a mitral valve thrombus in the father. After institution of coumadin therapy, the circulatory parameters in the fellow eye of each patient improved. ( info)

19/582. Recurrent malignant hypertension: a report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Malignant hypertension (MHT) is a rare and life-threatening condition which is defined clinically as severe hypertension accompanied by bilateral retinal haemorrhages and/or hard exudates, with or without papilloedema. If untreated, the prognosis of MHT is poor. With MHT being a relatively rare condition, it would be unusual to see it on more than one occasion in the same patient. We describe in detail two cases from a disease register of 400 cases of MHT seen in one medical centre over 33 years. ( info)

20/582. Macular injury by a military range finder.

    OBJECTIVE: The authors report the clinical findings of a civilian patient who unintentionally looked into the laser beam of a military range finder. Detailed information on the range finder is given. The objective is to illustrate the potential danger of such devices and to give detailed information on the device, the clinical findings associated with exposure, and the laser-tissue interaction mechanism. methods: The patient was examined with fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, microperimetry, and optical coherence tomography, both in the acute stage (2 hours) and 4 weeks later. fluorescein angiography was performed again 4 months later. A total of 100 mg prednisone tapered over 9 days was prescribed. Additionally, 50 microg tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) and 0.5 mL pure C2F6 were injected in the vitreous. RESULTS: In the acute phase, hemorrhage was located beneath the retina, primarily beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. Retinal defects as seen initially over the subretinal blood were reduced after 4 weeks, but a retinal defect ranging from the lasered site toward the fovea remained. visual acuity slightly increased from 20/100 to 20/63 after 4 weeks. indocyanine green angiography showed a large hypofluorescent spot in the macula. Four months after the accident, a classic choroidal neovascularization developed, originating from the lasered site. The technical parameters of the range finder were: Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), pulse duration 10 ns, beam divergence 1.5 mrad, energy 10 mJ. CONCLUSION: A range finder can produce severe macular injury. The primary laser-tissue interaction mechanism seems to be explosive disruption of choroidal tissue. Intravitreal injection of TPA and C2F6 did not show a clear benefit to such laser lesions. A late complication can be secondary choroidal neovascularization. ( info)
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