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1/60. HSV-1--induced acute retinal necrosis syndrome presenting with severe inflammatory orbitopathy, proptosis, and optic nerve involvement.

    OBJECTIVE: To present a unique case in which orbital inflammation, proptosis, and optic neuritis were the initial symptoms of acute retinal necrosis (ARN). The clinical presentation of ARN, as well as the currently recommended diagnostic procedures and guidelines for medical treatment of ARN, are summarized. DESIGN: Interventional case report. TESTING: polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were made on the vitreous for cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus, and toxoplasmosis. A full laboratory evaluation was made together with HLA-typing and serologic tests measuring convalescent titers for HSV and other micro-organisms. magnetic resonance imaging scan, computed tomography (CT) scan, and fluorescein angiographic examination were performed. The patient was treated with acyclovir and oral prednisone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The patient was evaluated for initial and final visual acuity and for degree of proptosis, periocular edema, and vitreitis. RESULTS: The first symptoms and signs of ARN were eye pain, headache, proptosis, and a swollen optic nerve on CT scan. Other than increased c-reactive protein, all blood samples were normal. PCR was positive for HSV-type I in two separate vitreous biopsies. The patient had the strongly ARN-related specificity HLA-DQ7. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of HSV-induced ARN presenting with inflammatory orbitopathy and optic neuritis. polymerase chain reaction for HSV-1 was positive more than 4 weeks after debut of symptoms, which is a new finding. The combination of severe vitreitis and retinal whitening, with or without proptosis, should alert the clinician to the possibility of herpes infection and treatment with intravenous acyclovir started promptly.
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ranking = 1
keywords = varicella zoster, zoster, varicella, herpes
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2/60. Progressive outer retinal necrosis caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: To identify the etiologic agent of rapidly progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) in a 32-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who had retinitis developed from cytomegalovirus (CMV). Multiple yellowish spots appeared in the deep retina without evidence of intraocular inflammation or retinal vasculitis, diagnosed clinically as PORN. death occurred after failure of multiple organs. DESIGN: Case report. methods: Both globes were taken at autopsy, fixed in formalin, and examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically to identify causative agents in the retinal lesions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: All layers of the retina were severely damaged and contained focal calcification. Cytomegalic inclusion bodies were found in cells in the damaged retina of the right eye. Immunohistochemical studies for herpesviruses revealed the presence of CMV antigens in the right retina at the posterior pole and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-specific antigen in the periphery of both retinas. No varicella-zoster virus (VZV) antigen was detected in either retina. CONCLUSIONS: PORN has been described as a variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy, occurring particularly in patients with AIDS. Although the etiologic agent has been reported to be VZV, HSV-1 can be an etiologic agent.
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ranking = 0.52193738846153
keywords = zoster, varicella, herpes, herpesvirus
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3/60. Acute retinal necrosis following contralateral herpes zoster ophthalmicus.

    BACKGROUND: A case report of contralateral acute retinal necrosis (ARN) following herpes zoster ophthalmicus. CASE: A 61-year-old male patient developed iridocyclitis and well-demarcated creamy-white retinal lesions at the nasal periphery in the right eye 1 month after herpes zoster ophthalmicus in the left eye. The patient had undergone surgery for primary lung cancer, and had subsequent intracranial metastasis of the tumor. OBSERVATIONS: The clinical diagnosis of ARN was supported by polymerase chain reaction investigation of the aqueous humor resulting in positive for varicella-zoster virus. Retinal lesions disappeared after systemic treatment with acyclovir, corticosteroids, and acetylsalicylate. No retinal detachment developed. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a careful ophthalmic follow-up for herpes zoster ophthalmicus patients because of the possibility of acute retinal necrosis developing in the contralateral eye.
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ranking = 1.4199630077724
keywords = zoster, varicella, herpes, herpes zoster
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4/60. Sight-threatening varicella zoster virus infection after fludarabine treatment.

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection involving the posterior segment of the eye after fludarabine treatment has not previously been described. Two patients, who had completed fludarabine treatment 3 and 18 months previously, presented with visual loss that had been preceded by a recent history of cutaneous zoster. The use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for VZV dna from ocular specimens allowed rapid confirmation of clinical diagnosis and treatment with a good outcome in one patient. With the increasing use of fludarabine and other purine analogues, an awareness of such complications is important because of their potentially sight-threatening consequences.
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ranking = 3.8079832408058
keywords = varicella zoster, zoster, varicella
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5/60. optic chiasm, optic nerve, and retinal involvement secondary to varicella-zoster virus.

    Immunocompromised patients are known to be at risk for varicella-zoster virus reactivation, often in atypical manners. We describe a 30-year-old man with simultaneous involvement of the retina, optic chiasm, and optic nerve with varicella-zoster virus who had a bitemporal visual field defect.
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ranking = 1.2576386683939
keywords = zoster, varicella
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6/60. herpes simplex virus type 2: a cause of acute retinal necrosis syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To describe a case of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) acute retinal necrosis syndrome (ARN) in a 13-year-old immunocompetent girl. methods: polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cultures, flow cytometry, and cytology were performed on the vitreous sample. RESULTS: Both PCR studies and vitreous cultures revealed HSV-2 as the cause of ARN. flow cytometry showed CD4 , CD8 , and natural killer cells. The visual outcome of the patient was 20/200. CONCLUSION: Successful culture of HSV-2 from the vitreous specimen in a patient with ARN proved HSV-2 to be one of the causes of ARN. The successful culture of HSV-2 has not been previously reported.
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ranking = 0.050610109016749
keywords = herpes
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7/60. Optic neuropathy and central retinal vascular obstruction as initial manifestations of acute retinal necrosis.

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this brief communication is to alert ophthalmologists that optic neuropathy may herald acute retinal necrosis (ARN). CASE: A previously healthy 54-year-old man exhibited optic neuropathy as an initial presentation of ARN, 8 weeks after varicella-zoster dermatitis. OBSERVATIONS: Central retinal vascular obstruction developed subsequently in his left eye. Later, the classic presentation of ARN appeared in his contralateral eye. Systemic acyclovir therapy stopped the progression of retinitis and resulted in healing of retinal lesions in his right eye. CONCLUSIONS: This case suggests that optic neuropathy, especially with preceding herpetic dermatitis, should be suspected as the prodrome of ARN.
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ranking = 0.20960644473231
keywords = zoster, varicella
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8/60. Findings in a patient with herpes simplex viral meningitis associated with acute retinal necrosis syndrome.

    We report the case of a 41-year-old man with clinical findings of viral meningitis associated with acute retinal necrosis syndrome in his right eye. MR images showed right optic nerve enlargement and high-intensity signal abnormalities in the region of the left lateral geniculate body and the left occipital lobe.
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ranking = 0.202440436067
keywords = herpes
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9/60. Acute retinal necrosis in children caused by herpes simplex virus.

    PURPOSE: To report the diagnosis, management, and outcome of acute retinal necrosis syndrome in children. METHOD: Case series of three consecutive children aged 11 years and younger who were diagnosed with acute retinal necrosis. In addition to full ocular and systemic examinations, the children underwent vitreous biopsy (patients 1 and 2) or aqueous tap (Patient 3) for polymerase chain reaction analysis. RESULTS: All patients had unilateral retinitis that was associated with preexisting chorioretinal scars, and two patients (patients 1 and 3) had concurrent extraocular central nervous system abnormalities. Intraocular herpes simplex virus was detected in all three children: Type 1 in Patient 1 and Type 2 in patients 2 and 3. In addition, all three children had a history of extraocular herpes simplex virus infection. CONCLUSIONS: retinitis associated with preexisting chorioretinal scars and detectable intraocular herpes simplex virus on polymerase chain reaction was common to all three children with acute retinal necrosis.
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ranking = 0.35427076311725
keywords = herpes
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10/60. Progressive outer retinal necrosis and acute retinal necrosis in fellow eyes of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To describe an unusual concurrence of acute retinal necrosis and progressive outer retinal necrosis in fellow eyes of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). methods: Interventional case report. In a 37-year-old man with AIDS and herpes zoster keratitis in the right eye, progressive outer retinal necrosis developed in the right eye and acute retinal necrosis developed in the left eye. RESULTS: Disparate presentations of retinitis persisted in each eye, and retinal detachment and vision loss ensued in both eyes despite antiviral therapy. CONCLUSION: Distinct features of acute retinal necrosis and progressive outer retinal necrosis do not necessarily reflect systemic factors, and they may be variant manifestations of the same underlying infection.
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ranking = 0.1729080804343
keywords = zoster, herpes, herpes zoster
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