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1/20. Increased diode laser uptake in inner retinal layers after indocyanine green staining of the internal limiting membrane.

    Intraoperative use of indocyanine green to stain the internal limiting membrane assists in its visualization and removal. This article describes increased uptake of diode laser energy by the superficial layers of the retina after indocyanine green staining of the internal limiting membrane in a patient with diabetic macular edema and a taut, attached posterior hyaloid. The patient was undergoing pars plana vitrectomy, removal of the posterior hyaloid, and indocyanine green-assisted peeling of the internal limiting membrane. In addition, panretinal diode laser endophotocoagulation was performed after discovering retinal neovascularization. In areas that were more intensely stained with indocyanine green, the clinical appearance and optical coherence tomography scans demonstrated markedly increased laser energy uptake in the superficial layers of the retina. This case indicates near-infrared or infrared laser procedures performed in areas of indocyanine green-stained internal limiting membrane may necessitate adjustment of laser power and technique.
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ranking = 1
keywords = diabetic
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2/20. Retinal neovascular markers in retinopathy of prematurity: aetiological implications.

    AIM: (1) To determine if expression of the blood-tissue barrier associated glucose transporter GLUT1 is preserved by the neovasculature of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), in contrast with the reported loss of GLUT1 expression in preretinal vessels of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. (2) To compare the vascular immunophenotype of ROP to juvenile haemangioma, another perinatal neovascular disorder that has recently been shown to express placental type vascular antigens, including GLUT1 and Lewis Y antigen. methods: A retrospective case report was carried out. Immunoreactivities for GLUT1 and Lewis Y antigen were assessed in a human eye with stage 3 ROP and compared with those in a control (paediatric) eye. The presence or absence of endothelial GLUT1 and Lewis Y immunoreactivity was determined in preretinal and intraretinal vessels. RESULTS: Immunoreactivity was positive for GLUT1 and negative for Lewis Y in the intraretinal and preretinal neovasculature of the ROP affected eye and in the normal retinal vessels of the control eye. CONCLUSIONS: Retention of immunoreactivity for GLUT1 distinguishes ROP from proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Furthermore, absence of Lewis Y antigen co-expression distinguishes ROP from juvenile haemangioma, a perinatal form of GLUT1 positive neovascularisation that has recently been linked to placental vasculature.
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ranking = 2
keywords = diabetic
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3/20. Spontaneous regression of neovascularization at the disc in diabetic retinopathy.

    Neovascularization at the disc (NVD) is the most serious complication in diabetic retinopathy, and leads to vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment. We report two cases of spontaneous regression of NVD in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Two men (31 and 46 years old) with diabetes had NVD in both eyes. They were treated with panretinal photocoagulation on the left eye first, but their right eyes went untreated, because they did not revisit our clinic for several months. Fortunately, on revisit, their neovascularization had disappeared a few months later in both eyes, including their untreated right eyes. We could not find any specific causes for the spontaneous regression of the new vessels.
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ranking = 6
keywords = diabetic
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4/20. Regression of optic nerve head neovascularization in proliferative diabetic retinopathy after intravitreal triamcinolone. Regression of diabetic optic disc neovascularization after intravitreal triamcinolone.

    The aim of this study is to report the clinical outcome of a diabetic patient with optic nerve head neovascularization treated with an intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide. A 52-year-old patient presented with clinically significant diffuse macular edema and optic nerve head neovascularization due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy in her right eye. Despite grid laser photocoagulation in the macular region macular edema progressed and visual acuity declined. The patient received a single intravitreal injection of 4 mg triamcinolone acetonide with topical anesthesia. After injection of triamcinolone acetonide visual acuity increased and macular edema decreased. Furthermore optic nerve head neovascularization had markedly regressed. No complication was observed during follow-up period. Intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide may be useful for treatment of optic nerve head neovascularization in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
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ranking = 11
keywords = diabetic
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5/20. Abortive foveal retinal neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy.

    We report six eyes with foveal white lesions and associated "abortive" retinal neovascularization. Over a two- to six-year follow-up period the clinical course was benign and the eyes maintained visual acuities of 20/20 to 20/30.
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ranking = 4
keywords = diabetic
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6/20. retinal neovascularization during treatment with IGF-1 for insulin resistance syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: Leprechaunism is a rare congenital syndrome and the most severe form of insulin resistance syndrome, with mutations in the insulin receptor gene. Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 (rhIGF-1) is currently applicable to the treatment for insulin resistance syndrome by its insulin-like effect. Although IGF-1 is thought to promote tissue proliferation and neovascularization, it is uncertain how it acts on the development of diabetic retinopathy. methods: Interventional case report. RESULTS: A 12-year-old girl with leprechaunism has been treated with IGF-1 since she was 6 months old. She presented with neovascular glaucoma in the left eye, but with no serious changes in the right fundus except for tortuosity and dilatation of retinal veins. Thereafter, retinal neovascularization in the right eye developed in 6 months to form a loop-shaped vascular network in the vitreous cavity despite panretinal photocoagulation. CONCLUSIONS: Characteristics of retinal neovascularization and clinical course suggest that IGF-1 treatment was closely associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy in this case.
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ranking = 2
keywords = diabetic
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7/20. Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy complicated by vitreous hemorrhage.

    PURPOSE: To report the short-term anatomic and visual acuity response after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin, Genentech) in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy complicated by vitreous hemorrhage. methods: Two patients with vitreous hemorrhage due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy were treated with at least one intravitreal injection of bevacizumab 1.25 mg in 0.05 mL. The patients underwent Snellen visual acuity testing, ophthalmoscopic examination, and fluorescein angiography at baseline and follow-up visits. RESULTS: Both patients had proliferative diabetic retinopathy with vitreous hemorrhage extensive enough to preclude panretinal photocoagulation. Following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab both patients experienced improvement in visual acuity starting within the first week. At 1 month of follow-up one patient had 2 lines of improvement in visual acuity and the other 5 lines. Each patient had regression of retinal neovascularization at 1 month of follow-up. Repeat injection was given to one patient at the 1-month follow-up because of slight leakage from neovascularization on the nerve, and to the other patient at 3 months because the retinal neovascularization showed early signs of reperfusion. The vitreous hemorrhage in each patient showed partial resolution at 1 week and nearly complete regression at 1 month. No adverse events were observed in either patient. CONCLUSIONS: Initial treatment results of patients with vitreous hemorrhage and proliferative diabetic retinopathy did not reveal any short-term safety concerns. Intravitreal bevacizumab resulted in marked regression of neovascularization and rapid resolution of vitreous hemorrhage. The favorable short-term results suggest further study is needed in a larger group of patients.
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ranking = 8
keywords = diabetic
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8/20. A case of diabetic retinopathy with both retinal neovascularization and complete posterior vitreous detachment.

    PURPOSE: Report of a case with retinal neovascularization developing in the setting of diabetic retinopathy despite complete posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). CASE REPORT: A 76-year-old man had had type II diabetes mellitus for more than 30 years. Weiss' ring was detected by direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy. PVD was thus considered to be complete. On the other hand, fluorescein angiography showed two areas of hyperfluorescence at the margin of the retinal nonperfusion area. CONCLUSIONS: The present case underscores the importance of periodic follow-up using fluorescein angiography, given the probability of retinal neovascularization development and proliferative changes for many years even in diabetic retinopathy associated with complete PVD.
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ranking = 6
keywords = diabetic
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9/20. Intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin) as adjunctive treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    PURPOSE: To report the use of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) as an adjunctive treatment for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). DESIGN: Retrospective case review. methods: Institutional review board approval to review patient data was obtained for this retrospective study. Three patients underwent intravitreal injection of bevacizumab as part of their treatment for PDR after informed consent was signed. Each patient also underwent fundus photographs before the bevacizumab injection and then one to three weeks after. RESULTS: All three patients showed complete regression of their neovascularization elsewhere (NVE) and neovascularization of the disk (NVD) between one and three weeks after injection. CONCLUSIONS: The speed and degree of neovascular regression after the injection of intravitreal bevacizumab may make this procedure an important adjunctive treatment in the management of selected cases with severe PDR.
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ranking = 5
keywords = diabetic
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10/20. Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) in the treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    PURPOSE: To report the biologic effect of intravitreal bevacizumab in patients with retinal and iris neovascularization secondary to diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Interventional, consecutive, retrospective, case series. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five eyes of 32 patients with retinal and/or iris neovascularization secondary to diabetes mellitus. methods: patients received intravitreal bevacizumab (6.2 microg-1.25 mg). Ophthalmic evaluations included nonstandardized Snellen visual acuity (VA), complete ophthalmic examination, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change in fluorescein angiographic leakage of the proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Secondary outcomes included changes in Snellen VA. RESULTS: No significant ocular or systemic adverse events were observed. All patients with neovascularization demonstrated by fluorescein angiography (44/44 eyes) had complete (or at least partial) reduction in leakage of the neovascularization within 1 week after the injection. Complete resolution of angiographic leakage of neovascularization of the disc was noted in 19 of 26 (73%) eyes, and leakage of iris neovascularization completely resolved in 9 of 11 (82%) eyes. The leakage was noted to diminish as early as 24 hours after injection. In addition to the reduction in angiographic leakage, the neovascularization clinically appeared to involute in many patients with a reduction in the caliber or presence of perfused blood vessels. In 2 cases, a subtle decrease in leakage of retinal or iris neovascularization in the fellow uninjected eye was noted, raising the possibility that therapeutic systemic levels were achieved after intravitreal injection. recurrence of fluorescein leakage varied. Recurrent leakage was seen as early as 2 weeks in one case, whereas in other cases, no recurrent leakage was noted at last follow-up of 11 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term results suggest that intravitreal bevacizumab is well tolerated and associated with a rapid regression of retinal and iris neovascularization secondary to PDR. A consistent biologic effect was noted, even with the lowest dose (6.2 microg) tested, supporting proof of concept. The observation of a possible therapeutic effect in the fellow eye raises concern that systemic side effects are possible in patients undergoing treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg), and lower doses may achieve a therapeutic result with less risk of systemic side effects. Further study is indicated.
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ranking = 5
keywords = diabetic
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