Cases reported "Retinal Vein Occlusion"

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1/8. Arteriovenous communication in the orbit.

    arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are anomalous communications between arterial and venous systems without interposed capillaries. These lesions are rarely entirely intraorbital. A case of an arteriovenous communication between branches of the internal and external carotid arterial circulations and the ophthalmic veins located within the orbit is reported. Treatment with embolization resulted in a branch retinal artery occlusion. Attempted direct arterial occlusion of a dural-based fistula of the eye is a risky procedure. If embolized, AVMs should probably be approached from the venous side, if at all.
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2/8. Optic neuropathy and central retinal vascular obstruction as initial manifestations of acute retinal necrosis.

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this brief communication is to alert ophthalmologists that optic neuropathy may herald acute retinal necrosis (ARN). CASE: A previously healthy 54-year-old man exhibited optic neuropathy as an initial presentation of ARN, 8 weeks after varicella-zoster dermatitis. OBSERVATIONS: Central retinal vascular obstruction developed subsequently in his left eye. Later, the classic presentation of ARN appeared in his contralateral eye. Systemic acyclovir therapy stopped the progression of retinitis and resulted in healing of retinal lesions in his right eye. CONCLUSIONS: This case suggests that optic neuropathy, especially with preceding herpetic dermatitis, should be suspected as the prodrome of ARN.
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3/8. Branch retinal vein occlusion in a Japanese patient with neurofibromatosis 1.

    BACKGROUND: To report an Asian patient with branch retinal vein occlusion secondary to neurofibromatosis 1. CASE: A 64-year-old woman presented with a loss of vision in her right eye of 9-month duration. A diagnosis of neurofibromatosis 1 was made. A general medical examination showed no abnormalities except the signs of neurofibromatosis 1. OBSERVATIONS: Fundus examination of the right eye revealed irregularities of the venous caliber, partial sheathing of the corresponding vein and macular edema. Multiple dilated and tortuous collateral channels and an arteriovenous communication bridged the perfused and nonperfused retina. Fundus examination of the left eye showed a tortuous vein in the temporal region of the fovea. fluorescein angiography of the right eye confirmed delayed filling in a superotemporal artery and in the corresponding vein. The temporal region of the fovea had large areas of capillary loss. The collaterals were tortuous and mimicked a neovascularization. fluorescein angiography of the left eye confirmed that the vein in the temporal part of the fovea was tortuous and not leaking. A diagnosis of branch retinal vein occlusion of the superotemporal vein was made. CONCLUSIONS: neurofibromatosis 1 should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retinal vascular occlusive disease without other risk factors.
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4/8. Bilateral retinal venous occlusion in pigmentary glaucoma.

    BACKGROUND: The association of central retinal vein occlusion with primary open angle glaucoma is well known. This communication reports the occurrence of branch retinal vein occlusion and central retinal vein occlusion in a case of pigmentary glaucoma. methods: A 32-year-old man presented with old branch retinal vein occlusion in one eye and resolving central retinal vein occlusion in the other eye. Examination revealed bilateral Krukenberg's spindle and hyperpigmented trabecular meshwork. intraocular pressure was 30 mmHg OU. Topical antiglaucoma medication was prescribed. RESULTS: intraocular pressure was controlled with topical antiglaucoma medication. CONCLUSION: The present report suggests that intraocular pressure monitoring is important in eyes even with branch retinal vein occlusion. Pigment dispersion may be the underlying cause for bilateral retinal vein occlusion, especially in young patients.
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5/8. Laser chorioretinal venous anastomosis for progressive nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion.

    The use of high or medium-intensity lasers to create an anastomotic connection between a retinal vein and a choroidal vein for the treatment of nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) has shown encouraging results. We established communication between an obstructed retinal vein and the choroid using a modified laser application in the eye of a 17-year-old boy with progressive nonischemic CRVO with macular edema and achieved excellent anatomic and visual results. The macular edema totally resolved and visual acuity significantly improved from 6/60 to 6/6.
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6/8. Ocular complications of arteriovenous communications of the retina.

    Primary arteriovenous communications of the retina (AVCR) are usually considered to be stable retinal lesions. Complications were documented in seven cases of AVCR, including intraretinal macular hemorrhage, central and peripheral retinal vein occlusions, neovascular glaucoma, and vitreous hemorrhage. To explain these developments, a hypothesis is presented that AVCR are associated with localized decreased retinal arterial pressure, increased retinal venous pressure, increased turbulence of blood flow, and decreased perfusion of adjacent retinal tissues.
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7/8. Laser-induced chorioretinal venous anastomosis for nonischemic central or branch retinal vein occlusion.

    OBJECTIVE: To establish a communication between an obstructed retinal vein and the choroid by means of laser in eyes with nonischemic central or branch vein occlusion. methods: Retrospective review identified eyes with nonischemic central or branch vein occlusion, and with decreasing or persistently decreased visual acuity of 20/100 or worse for 4 months or more before treatment, that received 1 or more sessions of laser photocoagulation to create a chorioretinal anastomosis. RESULTS: Of 24 eyes with central vein occlusion, an anastomosis formed in 9 (38%) within 2 months after treatment, with visual improvement of 6 or more lines in 2 (8%) of 24 eyes, 1 to 3 lines in 5 (21%), and no improvement in 2 (8%). Of 6 eyes with branch vein occlusion, an anastomosis formed in 3 (50%) within 2 months after treatment, with visual improvement of 1 to 3 lines in 2 (33%) of 6 and no improvement in 1 (16%). No permanent, vision-limiting complications occurred during a mean follow-up of 13 months after the first treatment session or 8 months after the last session. CONCLUSIONS: Laser photocoagulation of a retinal vein and Bruch's membrane may create a chorioretinal anastomosis in some eyes with a nonischemic vein occlusion. Progression to an ischemic status may possibly be prevented with successful anastomosis formation. Marked visual improvement may occur. Treatment techniques to create reliably an anastomosis with subsequent visual improvement, while minimizing potential complications, continue to evolve.
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8/8. Branch retinal vein obstruction secondary to retinal arteriovenous communication.

    PURPOSE: To document a branch retinal vein obstruction secondary to a congenital arteriovenous communication. METHOD: Case report of a young patient with retinal arteriovenous communication. RESULTS: A 12-year-old girl had a grade 2 retinal arteriovenous communication in her right eye. She was asymptomatic and was subsequently followed up. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was normal and disclosed no signs of Wyburn-Mason syndrome. Nine years later, she developed a branch retinal vein obstruction in the area of the arteriovenous communication. Six months later, the patient was free of secondary complications of branch retinal vein obstruction; however, she is being followed up to detect any retinal or iris neovascularization. CONCLUSION: awareness of retinal vascular obstruction associated with arteriovenous communication may help its timely recognition, as well as prompt treatment of potential complications, such as retinal and iris neovascularization.
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