Cases reported "Retinitis"

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1/53. bk virus as the cause of meningoencephalitis, retinitis and nephritis in a patient with AIDS.

    BACKGROUND: The two widely spread human polyomaviruses, bk virus (BKV) and jc virus (JCV) establish latency in the urinary tract, and can be reactivated in AIDS. JCV might cause progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy, but although up to 60% of AIDS patients excrete BKV in the urine there have been few reports of BKV-related renal and/or neurological disease in AIDS. OBJECTIVE: To report on an AIDS patient with progressive renal and neurological symptoms involving the retina. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Venhalsan, Soder Hospital, Stockholm, sweden. methods: The brain, eye tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, urine and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analysed by nested PCR for polyoma-virus dna. Macroscopical and microscopical examination were performed of the kidney and brain post mortem. Immunohistochemical stainings for the two BKV proteins, the VP1 and the agnoprotein, were performed on autopsy material and virus infected tissue culture cells. RESULTS: BKV could be demonstrated in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid, eye tissues, kidneys and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. CONCLUSION: During 6 years, approximately 400 cerebrospinal fluid samples from immunosuppressed individuals with neurological symptoms have been investigated by PCR for the presence of polyomaviruses. BKV dna has, so far, only been found in the case reported here. Although reports of BKV infections in the nervous system are rare, there is now evidence for its occurrence in immunocompromised patients and the diagnosis should be considered in such patients with neurological symptoms and signs of renal disease. The diagnosis is simple to verify and is important to establish.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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2/53. Diffuse toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis as the initial manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is an important opportunistic retinal infection in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected patients. It may present as diffuse necrotizing retinochoroiditis instead of a focal lesion and may be the initial manifestation of hiv infection. A 50-year-old heterosexual man presented with blurred vision in his left eye of 3 months' duration. Fundus examination revealed diffuse necrotizing retinochoroiditis, mainly at the posterior pole, with marked vitritis in the left eye. Serologic studies and aqueous fluid antibody titers indicated recent toxoplasmic infection. Positive enzyme immunoassays (EIA) and Western blot tests proved hiv infection. The retinochoroiditis and vitritis improved after an antitoxoplasmic regimen with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). Nonetheless, toxoplasmic encephalitis developed 6 months after the onset of ocular toxoplasmosis and responded well to TMP-SMX. This is the first case of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis as the initial manifestation of AIDS reported in taiwan. We suggest that toxoplasma infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of diffuse necrotizing retinochoroiditis and vitritis. We also recommend that adults with newly diagnosed ocular toxoplasmosis be screened for hiv infection.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = encephalitis
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3/53. herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)--induced retinitis following herpes simplex encephalitis: indications for brain-to-eye transmission of HSV-1.

    herpes simplex encephalitis is a severe neurological disease with high mortality and morbidity rates. Reactivated herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can cause relapses and might even spread to the retina, where it can induce a potentially blinding eye disease, known as acute retinal necrosis. In the present study, the HSV-1 strains in the brain and eye of 2 patients with acute retinal necrosis following an episode of herpes simplex encephalitis were genotyped. The HSV-1 strains in both the brain and eye were identical in each patient, but they differed interindividually. The data suggest brain-to-eye transmission of HSV-1 in these patients.
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ranking = 1.7350943672717
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
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4/53. herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)--induced retinitis following herpes simplex encephalitis: indications for brain-to-eye transmission of HSV-1.

    herpes simplex encephalitis is a severe neurological disease with high mortality and morbidity rates. Reactivated herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can cause relapses and might even spread to the retina, where it can induce a potentially blinding eye disease, known as acute retinal necrosis. In the present study, the HSV-1 strains in the brain and eye of 2 patients with acute retinal necrosis following an episode of herpes simplex encephalitis were genotyped. The HSV-1 strains in both the brain and eye were identical in each patient, but they differed interindividually. The data suggest brain-to-eye transmission of HSV-1 in these patients.
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ranking = 1.7350943672717
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
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5/53. Progressive outer retinal necrosis and acute retinal necrosis in fellow eyes of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To describe an unusual concurrence of acute retinal necrosis and progressive outer retinal necrosis in fellow eyes of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). methods: Interventional case report. In a 37-year-old man with AIDS and herpes zoster keratitis in the right eye, progressive outer retinal necrosis developed in the right eye and acute retinal necrosis developed in the left eye. RESULTS: Disparate presentations of retinitis persisted in each eye, and retinal detachment and vision loss ensued in both eyes despite antiviral therapy. CONCLUSION: Distinct features of acute retinal necrosis and progressive outer retinal necrosis do not necessarily reflect systemic factors, and they may be variant manifestations of the same underlying infection.
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ranking = 0.11259713739719
keywords = zoster, herpes, herpes zoster
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6/53. Failure of antiretroviral therapy to control Varicella zoster retinitis.

    The term necrotizing herpetic retinopathies encompasses a spectrum of diseases which includes cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, acute retinal necrosis (ARN) and Varicella zoster retinitis (VZR). Varicella zoster retinitis is a rapidly progressive, necrotizing condition most commonly reported in patients with AIDS. A case of vitreous biopsy-proven VZR is reported in a patient with AIDS that progressed despite immune recovery on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to a viral load < 50 copies/mL and a CD4 count of 230 cells/microL. This is in contrast to CMV retinitis in which maintenance therapy appears unnecessary once the CD4 count rises and the viral load falls on HAART. patients with VZR and AIDS should therefore be monitored for reactivation of retinal disease despite HAART-induced remission.
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ranking = 0.36401005000048
keywords = zoster
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7/53. Bilateral neuroretinitis associated with mumps.

    BACKGROUND: Involvement of the optic nerve is a rare complication of mumps infection. OBJECTIVES: To report a case of bilateral neuroretinitis complicating a mumps infection and to review 5 previously reported cases. DESIGN: Case report and literature review. SETTING: Tertiary hospital. PATIENT: A 7-year-old girl had sudden-onset blindness due to bilateral neuroretinitis. Approximately 3 weeks prior to the initial examination, she developed a self-limited febrile illness with parotid swelling and subsequent meningoencephalitis. RESULTS: mumps was determined to be the underlying cause of the meningoencephalitis and bilateral optic neuritis because of the exposure history in this nonvaccinated child, the typical clinical signs and symptoms, and the positive serologic test results. Recovery of visual function was gradual but nearly complete. CONCLUSIONS: physicians should be aware that optic nerve involvement may be a manifestation of mumps infection. The delayed onset of optic neuritis, the bilateral involvement, and the near complete recovery suggest an immune-mediated pathogenesis.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = encephalitis
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8/53. Successful treatment of varicella zoster virus retinitis with aggressive intravitreal and systemic antiviral therapy.

    AIMS: To describe the successful treatment of varicella zoster virus retinitis (VZVR) using intravenous cidofovir as part of an aggressive management strategy. case reports: Two patients with bilateral VZVR were treated with a combination of intravenous cidofovir and ganciclovir with adjuvant intravitreal foscarnet or ganciclovir. Both patients maintained good vision in the less severely affected eye. retinal detachment did not occur in either patient. CONCLUSIONS: VZVR should be treated aggressively with a combination of intravenous and intravitreal therapy to improve visual prognosis. Intravenous cidofovir, in the absence of contra-indications, should be considered as part of this aggressive therapeutic approach, especially in patients with AIDS in whom the prognosis is particularly poor.
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ranking = 2.464165187015
keywords = varicella zoster, varicella, zoster
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9/53. Identification of a unique bk virus variant in the CNS of a patient with AIDS.

    Human polyomavirus BK (BKV; GenBank or EMBL or DDBJ accession no. NC001538) is often reactivated in immunosuppressed patients. Reactivation has been associated primarily with excretion of the virus in the urine, and there have been few reports of renal and/or neurological disease caused by BKV in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). polymerase chain reaction, Southern blotting, and sequencing were used to detect and identify the noncoding control region (NCCR) of BKV in different tissues in an AIDS patient with meningoencephalitis, retinitis, and nephritis. An undescribed reorganized NCCR variant of the virus, completely different from the variants detected in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and urine, was identified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and CNS tissues. These results suggest that rearrangements in the NCCR of the virus have resulted in a BKV variant, which is better adapted to the host cell machinery of the cells in CNS tissue. The rearranged variant (BKV CNS) might have been involved in the initiation and/or development of the pathological lesions observed in the CNS-related tissues of this patient.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = encephalitis
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10/53. Influenza retinitis: association with influenza encephalitis.

    PURPOSE: To report an unusual case of retinitis caused by influenza virus. CASE: A 30-year-old male claimed partial color blindness after recovery from influenza encephalitis. visual acuity was 0.3 in the right eye and 0.03 in the left. An ophthalmoscopic fundus examination looked normal, but fluorescein angiography revealed granular hyperfluorescence with multiple dark circular lesions at the posterior pole of both eyes. Serological testing revealed an influenza a virus infection. With corticosteroid pulse therapy (3 days) followed by oral methyl prednisolone for 1 month, visual acuity gradually recovered. Over the following 2-year period, visual acuity has recovered to 1.2 in both eyes, but color sensation still remains impaired. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza encephalitis can cause visual loss due to retinitis at the posterior pole.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = encephalitis
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