Cases reported "Retroviridae Infections"

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11/16. Lymphadenopathy associated virus infection of a blood donor--recipient pair with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    A retrovirus isolated from three patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the united states was morphologically and antigenically identical to lymphadenopathy associated virus isolated in france. Two of these isolates were from a blood donor-recipient pair, each of whom developed AIDS. Lymphadenopathy associated virus was isolated from the blood donor's lymphocytes 12 months after his onset of AIDS symptoms and from the blood recipient's lymphocytes 1 month after her onset of AIDS symptoms. Two isolates from the blood donor-recipient pair and an isolate from an epidemiologically unrelated homosexual man were examined by competitive radioimmunoassay to determine their antigenic relatedness to each other and to other human retroviruses. The major core proteins (p25) of the isolates were antigenically identical and all three isolates were identical to prototype lymphadenopathy associated virus isolated in france.
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ranking = 1
keywords = retrovirus
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12/16. Retrovirus-like activity in an immunosuppressed dog: pathological and immunological findings.

    A putative retrovirus was isolated from a dog with a severe, acquired immunodeficiency-like syndrome. The haematological abnormalities and immunological deficiencies included anaemia, leucopenia (lymphopenia and neutropenia), thrombocytopenia, decreased humoral immunity, and ineffective T-cell responses in-vitro. The necropsy findings included generalized lymphoid depletion, severe bone marrow hypoplasia, plasmacytic infiltrates in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, and severe secondary infections. Supernates of peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures from the affected dog contained an agent with manganese-dependent reverse transcriptase (RT) activity that sedimented at a density of 1.122 g/ml. RT activity was also found post-mortem in extracts prepared from the bone marrow, lymph nodes, and small intestine. The lymph nodes and small intestine expressed a 3.8 kb mRNA that was recognized by a bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) pol dna probe by Northern blotting. dna isolated from the lymph nodes and small intestine from the affected dog showed distinct band patterns by Southern analysis, suggesting an exogenous retrovirus. The retrovirus could be propagated in normal canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells or short-term canine lymphocyte cell lines in-vitro, and was cytopathogenic for cells of canine, but not human, origin. These results suggest the existence of a pathogenic canine retrovirus capable of producing disease of the type associated with retroviruses in other species.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = retrovirus
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13/16. Retroviral expression in a patient who has paraarticular ossification.

    Reverse transcriptase activity is reported in the mononuclear blood cells isolated from a patient in whom paraarticular ossification developed after surgery for an aneurysmal bone cyst. The enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity by chromatography before being characterized biochemically for its template specificity and ionic requirement. The enzyme was able to transcribe poly(rA).(dT)12-18 very efficiently in the presence of Mn ions. Viral particles were observed in the HuT-78 cell line, cocultured with the mononuclear cells of the patient. No viral particles were observed in HuT-78 cells before the coculture. The patient was found seronegative for hiv-1, hiv-2, and HTLV-1. These results suggest that a new retrovirus infecting mononuclear blood cells may be involved in the development of ectopic ossification. This hypothesis is strengthened by the previous finding of a retrovirus in the mononuclear blood cells of a patient with benign osteopetrosis, and by the fact that HTLV-1 infected t-lymphocytes acquire the ability to secrete factors responsible for the lytic bone lesions observed in the patients. A family of human bone diseases that reflect T-cell dysfunction(s) and are caused by lymphotropic viruses may exist.
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ranking = 1
keywords = retrovirus
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14/16. Idiopathic CD4 T-lymphocytopenia--four patients with opportunistic infections and no evidence of HIV infection.

    BACKGROUND AND methods. We describe four patients without major risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, each of whom presented with severe opportunistic infections and was found to have idiopathic CD4 T-lymphocytopenia. We performed assays to detect the presence of retroviruses and undertook immunophenotyping of subgroups of peripheral-blood lymphocytes. RESULTS. The opportunistic infections at presentation included pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cryptococcal meningitis (two patients, one with concurrent pulmonary tuberculosis), and histoplasma-induced brain abscess. During 10 to 68 months of observation, none of the four patients had evidence of infection with HIV type 1 or 2 or human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I or II on the basis of epidemiologic, serologic, or polymerase-chain-reaction studies or culture, nor was there any detectable reverse transcriptase activity. Although all the patients had severe, persistent CD4 T-lymphocytopenia (range, 12 to 293 cells per cubic millimeter), the CD4 cell count progressively declined in only one and was accompanied by multiple opportunistic infections. All four patients had significantly reduced numbers of circulating CD8 T cells, natural killer cells, or B cells (or all three). CONCLUSIONS. These four patients had idiopathic CD4 T-lymphocytopenia with opportunistic infections but no evidence of HIV infection. Instead of the progressive, selective depletion of CD4 T cells characteristic of HIV infection, some patients with idiopathic immunodeficiency have stable CD4 cell counts accompanied by reductions in the levels of several other lymphocyte subgroups.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = retrovirus
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15/16. No evidence of pig dna or retroviral infection in patients with short-term extracorporeal connection to pig kidneys.

    BACKGROUND: The xenotransplantation of organs and tissues, in particular those from pigs, is viewed as a means to alleviate the shortage of human donor organs and cells available for transplantation and also as a therapy for other diseases. The potential microbiological hazards of xenotransplantation have recently attracted much attention. One concern is over pig endogenous retroviruses (PERV). Until the possible consequences of infection by PERV are better understood it is unlikely that a significant number of porcine xenotransplants will proceed. However, a small number of patients have already been treated with or exposed to living porcine cells or tissue, and investigation of these patients may provide valuable information. methods: We took serial blood samples from two renal dialysis patients whose circulation had been linked extracorporeally to pig kidneys and tested them for pig dna and PERV dna by nested PCR. The patients' plasma was also tested for neutralising antibodies to two anthropotropic PERV strains. FINDINGS: Having established that the nested PCRs could detect single molecules of target sequence, we analysed dna isolated from patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We found no evidence of pig or PERV dna in either patient, even in samples taken as early as 6 h after the perfusion. Furthermore, we found no evidence of seroconversion for PERV-specific antibodies. INTERPRETATION: The absence of porcine cells in the circulation of both patients, even in the samples taken soon after the perfusion experiment, suggests that any porcine cells dislodged from the kidney became rapidly sequestered from the circulation. Since cell-to-cell contact increases the efficiency of infection of PERV this removal of porcine cells may increase the risk of transmission of PERV to the xenograft recipient. We did not, however, detect indications of infection by PERV by PCR or neutralisation assay. The genetic and serological methods described here will be useful for detection of possible PERV infection in other patients.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = retrovirus
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16/16. Isolated leptomeningeal Castleman's disease with viral particles in the follicular dendritic cells.

    To our knowledge, five cases of Castleman's disease involving only the central nervous system have been reported previously. We report a sixth case, which occurred in a 47-year-old woman with a 3-month history of headaches and a large superior frontal lobe mass on neuroimaging. Excisional biopsy revealed confluent lymphoid nodular areas with multiple well-developed germinal centers surrounded by concentrically layered proliferations of small B lymphocytes typical of Castleman's disease. Ultrastructural study found 100-nm virallike particles within follicular dendritic cells as well as intercellular spaces. These particles were suggestive of a D-type retrovirus. The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy and was neurologically normal 3 months after surgery.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = retrovirus
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