Cases reported "Rett Syndrome"

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1/4. Occurrence of rett syndrome in boys.

    The neurologic disorder rett syndrome was originally described exclusively in girls. We present two boys with clinical features of rett syndrome. Other than head circumference deceleration, no longer considered mandatory, patient 1 meets all of the criteria. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis, 97.6% of cells were found to be karyotypically normal (46,XY). No mutation was detected on screening of the coding region of the MECP2 gene. The second patient also has classic features of rett syndrome. However, cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood revealed a karyotype 47,XXY[23]/46,XY[7] confirming mosaicism for Klinefelter's syndrome. A T158M missense mutation in the methylcytosine-binding domain of the MECP2 gene was identified. A diagnostic bias against the clinical identification of rett syndrome in boys may exist. This presentation of the male phenotype could be more common than it would appear, although boys with MECP2 mutations might also manifest in other ways. rett syndrome remains a clinical diagnosis that should not be dismissed in boys, and thorough evaluation including karyotype and mutation testing is warranted.
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2/4. A case of multiple congenital anomalies in association with rett syndrome confirmed by MECP2 mutation screening.

    rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Apparently normal at birth, girls with RTT undergo developmental regression and acquire a neurological and behavioural phenotype that has been used to define clinical diagnostic criteria for the disorder. Recently mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2), located on Xq28 have been identified in females with RTT. We report a girl whose clinical course was complicated by congenital abnormalities of the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal system. In addition neurological abnormalities were evident in the newborn period. By the age of 3 years she had developed a phenotype very suggestive of RTT, but had not demonstrated deceleration of head growth and the development of expressive language was prevented by the presence of the tracheostomy. The clinical impression of RTT was confirmed by the recent finding of a mutation in the MECP2 gene. This case report highlights the importance of considering the clinical diagnosis of RTT even in the presence of other conditions and emphasises that girls with RTT may not be normal from birth.
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3/4. rett syndrome in south africa.

    rett syndrome is a fairly recently recognized neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown aetiology that affects exclusively girls in whom early development is apparently normal but by the age of 6-18 months autistic behaviour and dementia, apraxia of gait, stereotypic repetitive hand movements, seizures and deceleration of head growth occur. Except for one Brazilian case, all previous reported cases have been from the northern hemisphere. We report three children (two Indian and one African) with the clinical features of rett syndrome and believe these to be the first documented cases in Indian and African children in the southern hemisphere. More widespread knowledge of this syndrome is required, especially in developing countries, in order to prevent unnecessary and costly investigations, and to help families deal effectively with this important syndrome.
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4/4. An analogue assessment of repetitive hand behaviours in girls and young women with rett syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that almost exclusively affects females. In addition to neurodevelopmental regression and loss of hand skills, apraxia, deceleration of head growth, and increasing spasticity and scoliosis, a number of behavioural features are also seen, including stereotypic hand movements, hyperventilation and breath holding. The aim of the study was to investigate the extent to which analogue environmental conditions affected the frequency of repetitive hand behaviour in eight girls and young women with rett syndrome. METHOD: The frequency of repetitive hand movements was observed every 10 s for four 4-min sessions under the following conditions: Continuous adult attention, adult Demands, Stimulation and No Stimulation. RESULTS: The frequency of repetitive hand movements was high -- they occurred in above 60% of all intervals in all conditions for all participants and at nearly 100% for some participants in some conditions. For one participant the frequency of repetitive hand movements was somewhat reduced in the Stimulation condition; for another it was relatively increased in the No Stimulation condition. CONCLUSIONS: overall, environmental manipulations had relatively limited effects on repetitive hand behaviours. Repetitive hand behaviour in Rett syndrome may be maintained by automatic reinforcement or neurochemical processes and may not be primarily influenced by contingent reinforcement.
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