Cases reported "Reye Syndrome"

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1/18. Hereditary fructose intolerance presenting as Reye's-like syndrome: report of one case.

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by catalytic deficiency of aldolase B (fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase). Herein we report on a case of hereditary fructose intolerance with initial presentation of episodic unconsciousness, seizure, hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, and abnormal liver function since the patient was 11 months old. She was diagnosed as Reye's-like syndrome according to a liver biopsy done at 20 months of age. As she grew up, cold sweating, abdominal pain or gastrointestinal discomfort shortly after the intake of fruits was noted and she developed an aversion to fruits, vegetables and sweet-tasting foods. At 9 years of age, a fructose tolerance test signified a positive result that induced hypoglycemia, transient hypophosphatemia, hyperuricaemia, elevation of serum magnesium, and accumulation of lactic acid. Appropriate dietary management and precautions were recommended. The patient has been symptom-free and exhibited normal growth and development when followed up to 12 years of age.
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2/18. Metabolic cause of Reye-like syndrome.

    The most frequent metabolic cause of Reye-like syndrome is medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency. The authors describe a gypsy boy who was repeatedly hospitalised due to symptoms of Reye-like syndrome (serious hypoglycemia, loss of consciousness, seizures, increased values of aminotransferases, decreased values of free carnitine). The diagnosis of MCAD deficiency was established by analysis of plasmatic acylcarnitines by use of tandem mass spectrometry. dna analysis proved the most common K329E (G985) mutation in gene for MCAD deficiency in homozygous state. The authors have emphasised the advantage of tandem mass spectrometry in the diagnosis of disorders of fatty acid beta-oxidation. This highly sophisticated method can detect most of these disorders from dry blood spots disregarding the symptoms and type of mutation.
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3/18. Reye's syndrome in an adult.

    Reye's syndrome (fatty infiltration of the liver with encephalopathy) is an uncommon disease of children and has not previously been noted in adult patients. We present a 25-year-old male who survived this syndrome after presenting a stuporous state. Etiologic and pathophysiologic mechanisms are considered.
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4/18. Kawasaki disease with reye syndrome: report of one case.

    A seven-month-old girl was admitted to the pediatrics Department of Mackay Memorial Hospital with the following symptoms and signs: (1) high fever for more than five days; (2) injection of bilateral conjunctiva; (3) bright red lips with strawberry tongue; (4) edematous change of palms and soles, followed by digit desquamation; (5) an ill-defined, erythematous plaque on the scar of the BCG. Kawasaki disease was diagnosed, and high dose aspirin (100 mg/kg/day) and intravenous gamma-globulin (IVIG) (400 mg/kg/day) were given for four days. The patient was afebrile on the second day after IVIG infusion, and was discharged six days after admission. A small single daily dose of aspirin (10 mg/kg/day) was given after the afebrile days. Unfortunately, vomiting and consciousness disturbance were noted one day after discharge. Laboratory data showed elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ammonia. hypoglycemia and prolonged PT and PTT were also noted. reye syndrome was suspected, and the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit for further management. A liver biopsy gave findings consistent with reye syndrome. In spite of intensive treatment, the infant expired on the second day after admission. In a review of the literature, no correlation between these two syndromes was found. This rare case is presented to warn that reye syndrome may follow Kawasaki disease when aspirin has been prescribed at a high dose.
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5/18. Metabolic stroke in three years old boy as the consequence of metabolic derangement. A case report of recidiving Reye's-like syndrome.

    Three years old boy with developmental renal dysplasia was hit as newborn child by attack of cerebral edema with metabolic disturbances (hypoglycemia, hypophosphatemia, ketoacidosis and with hypocoagulation state) and was classified as child at risk in the pediatric evidence. In the third year of the age he went through nephrectomy and after the operation, the similar metabolic disturbances occurred (hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis, derangement of the metabolic situation). Cerebral edema and the metabolic stroke developed. Reye's-like syndrome was considered and serious functional disturbances of basal ganglia and brain-stem structure were observed.
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6/18. adult Reye's syndrome: a review with new evidence for a generalized defect in intramitochondrial enzyme processing.

    A 42-year-old woman developed a flu-like illness and died 8 days later with Reye's syndrome (RS). There are 26 other cases of adult-onset RS reported. Biochemical, immunologic, and molecular studies of liver, brain, and skeletal muscle revealed a non-uniform decrease in several mitochondrial residual enzyme activities in liver and brain. pyruvate carboxylase activity was negligible. Cross-reacting material was present in normal abundance in isolated liver mitochondria for several enzymes that had reduced catalytic activity including pyruvate carboxylase. Subunit II (encoded by mitochondrial dna) and subunit IV (encoded by nuclear dna) of cytochrome c oxidase also were present in normal abundance with normal electrophoretic mobility. These observations, combined with pertinent findings of other investigators, allow us to speculate that the intramitochondrial matrix chemical environment is disturbed by preceding pathophysiologic events resulting in a lowered ATP/ADP ratio. The lowered intramitochondrial energetic state interferes with the refolding and assembly of imported mitochondrial proteins, causing a loss of the catalytic efficiency of these enzymes. This explains the selective vulnerability of mitochondria in RS and the non-uniform, disproportionate loss of enzyme activity.
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7/18. A case of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency with acute and late onset simulating Reye's syndrome in an adult male.

    A 15-year-old male was admitted to the hospital because of a disturbance of consciousness. He was in good mental and physical condition until the previous day, when he vomited and experienced a reduction of consciousness. He was brought to the hospital the day following the onset of symptoms. On admission the patient was stuporous. Neurological focal signs were not demonstrated. Computed tomographic (CT) scanning on admission showed no definite abnormality. Cerebrosprinal fluid had no pleocytosis. At this time, Reye's syndrome was suspected because of the acute change of consciousness and the presence of hyperammonemia. The disturbance of consciousness progressed and he became comatose on the day following admission. CT scanning showed that the suprasellar, ambient and quadrigeminal cisterns could almost not be detected and the bilateral ventricles were narrowed. The plasma aminogram demonstrated an elevation of alanine, lysine, glutamine, glutamic acid, aspartate and proline. Ketonuria was negative, but the urinary excretion of orotic acid was markedly increased. This data was indicative of the existence of an ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency. The patient was died on the third day after hospitalization. The OTC activity in the liver was 10% of normal. Activities of other enzymes in the urea cycle were within normal limits. It is unusual that the symptoms of the enzyme deficiency occurred, both acutely and late at an adult age, as in this case. This case demonstrates that OTC deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hyperammonemia of adult onset.
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8/18. hypothermia: an unusual manifestation of Reye's syndrome.

    A four year old girl manifested with seizures, raised intracranial tension and altered consciousness. Laboratory investigations suggested Reye's syndrome. Later she developed fatal hypothermia. Rarity of such a case is highlighted. Probable pathogenesis of hypothermia in Reye's syndrome is discussed.
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9/18. Familial carnitine deficiency: further evidence for autosomal recessive transmission with variable expression.

    carnitine deficiency occurring in families has been rarely reported and the genetic transmission has not yet been clearly elucidated. Five members of one family showing marked heterogeneity of carnitine deficiency states are presented. In three patients, there was no correlation between measurable carnitine levels in serum and muscle and the clinical findings. The parents, who are remote relatives from an isolated village in Kurdistan (iraq), had low muscle carnitine levels; however, they were asymptomatic. One son, with systemic carnitine deficiency causing muscle weakness and recurrent episodes of severe hepatic encephalopathy, died at 3 years of age. His brother had mild proximal muscle weakness associated with low muscle carnitine levels. He was successfully treated with L-carnitine and prednisone. A daughter is asymptomatic, but with low serum and muscle levels of carnitine. The marked heterogeneity of carnitine deficiency states within one family, where both parents had low muscle carnitine levels, suggests an autosomal recessive inheritance with variable expression.
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10/18. Chronic salicylism in a patient with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    A patient who developed chronic salicylism associated with salicylate therapy for treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is described, and the clinical presentation and treatment of chronic salicylism are reviewed. A 5 1/2-year-old boy was receiving aspirin 150/mg/kg/day for treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. While on salicylate therapy, the patient developed tachypnea and became increasingly hyperthermic, lethargic, and disoriented. The patient developed a maculopapular rash, weakness, and a decreased level of consciousness during the 11 days before admission to the hospital. physical examination and laboratory determinations revealed that the patient had hypoprothrombinemia, hypoglycemia, and severe hepatic encephalopathy secondary to long-term salicylate toxicity. The patient was treated for hypoglycemia, electrolyte imbalances, thrombocytopenia, and anemia and was discharged after 24 days. Diagnosing chronic salicylism with hepatic dysfunction was difficult because the symptoms are similar to those of stage I to stage II Reye's syndrome. Liver enzymes, including aspartate aminotransferase (also called SGOT), alanine aminotransferase (also called SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase, may be elevated in juvenile arthritis patients with hepatic dysfunction. Liver dysfunction usually improves when salicylate therapy is discontinued. Supportive therapy should always be used in symptomatic patients. Children on long-term, high-dose salicylate therapy should be monitored closely, and baseline liver function tests should be performed. The clinical effectiveness of administering sodium bicarbonate in attempts to alkalinize urine and increase salicylate elimination is controversial. In patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis who develop chronic salicylism, careful analysis of the patient's medication history, laboratory values, and clinical presentation are necessary to rule out Reye's syndrome.
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