Cases reported "Rh Isoimmunization"

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11/120. Fetal splenic rupture following transfusion.

    BACKGROUND: splenic rupture in the newborn is a rare complication in erythroblastosis fetalis. There are no reports of splenic rupture in the fetus affected by hemolytic disease of the newborn. CASE: A 41-year-old gravida 3, para 2-0-0-2 with severe rhesus alloimmunization was managed with serial intrauterine transfusions resulting in fetal death after the fourth procedure. autopsy findings revealed intra-abdominal clotted blood and splenic capsular defects consistent with splenic rupture. CONCLUSION: Fetal splenic rupture might occur in hemolytic disease of the newborn associated with splenomegaly. Acute hemodynamic changes with increased intra-abdominal pressure from intrauterine transfusion might precipitate splenic rupture. (Obstet Gynecol 2001;97:824-5. ( info)

12/120. Successful treatment of neonatal rhesus hemolytic anemia with high doses of recombinant human erythropoietin.

    The authors report the use of high-dose recombinant erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) in a full-term newborn baby with severe postnatal rhesus hemolytic anemia (RHA). Hemoglobin (Hb) value and reticulocyte count at day 13 of life were 59 g/L and 234 x 10(9)/L, respectively. Three days after the r-HuEPO (870 U/kg/d) administration, reticulocyte count had increased more than 4-fold and Hb rose to 73 g/L. r-HuEPO was gradually decreased after 18 days of treatment. No major side effect was observed. In selected cases of severe anemia due to hemolytic disorders, transfusions may be avoided by the use of high doses of r-HuEPO. ( info)

13/120. erythropoietin as treatment for late hyporegenerative anemia in neonates with Rh hemolytic disease after in utero exchange transfusion.

    We report the effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) in the treatment of late hyporegenerative anemia in 2 neonates with Rh hemolytic disease who had received several in utero exchange transfusions. In both cases anemia occurred at 6 weeks of age and we started therapy at approximately 70 days of age. We used rHuEPO at 250 U/kg three times a week. We also used high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. One week after initiation of erythropoietin treatment, an increase in reticulocyte count and Hb level was noted in our 2 patients. They did not require further erythrocyte transfusions but they already had received two transfusions after birth. There were no side effects attributable to rHuEPO treatment. ( info)

14/120. single umbilical artery stenosis associated with intrauterine fetal death post-transfusion.

    single umbilical artery is among the most common funicular vascular anomalies. In contrast, umbilical artery stenosis is rare, and has only been reported in three-vessel cords. We describe a case of single umbilical artery stenosis in a fetus with no associated malformations. Intrauterine fetal death occurred at 28 weeks' gestation following cordocentesis and intravascular transfusion for Rhesus alloimmunization. single umbilical artery stenosis may place the fetus at increased risk, particularly in cases requiring interventions involving cord manipulation. ( info)

15/120. Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation of twins discordant for Rh alloimmunization.

    Minimally invasive methods have been used successfully to diagnose and treat maternal red blood cell alloimmunization. We present a case of a dizygotic twin pregnancy discordant for the Rh allele. Serial Doppler ultrasonography helped to diagnose the fetus that was at-risk for anemia caused by Rh alloimmunization and to direct treatment. ( info)

16/120. Hemolytic disease of the newborn due to isoimmunization with anti-E antibodies: a case report.

    Minor blood group hemolytic disease is extremely rare, since the overall potency of minor blood groups in inducing antibodies is significantly lower when compared with that of Rh (D) antigen. We hereby report a very rare case of severe neonatal anti-E hemolytic disease due to E minor blood group incompatibility. A term newborn born to a 27-year-old, gravida 3, para 3 mother was referred due to a high and increasing serum bilirubin level despite phototherapy on the 4th day of life. On admission physical examination was normal except for the jaundice, and results of the laboratory investigation demonstrated a moderate-to-severe anemia (hemoglobin 7.8 g/dl) and a severe hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia (serum total and indirect bilirubin levels 36 mg/ dl and 32.8 mg/dl, respectively; reticulocyte count 15%; and a positive direct antiglobulin test). As there was no apparent cause of the hemolytic disease such as Rh or ABO incompatibilities, further investigation (a positive indirect antiglobulin test and a positive irregular anti-E antibody in both the patient and mother, and minor blood group antigen profiles in family members compatible with E minor blood group isoimmunization) revealed the presence of anti-E hemolytic disease due to E minor blood group incompatibility. Two exchange transfusions with a 12-hour-interval were performed with minor blood group compatible fresh whole blood, and the patient was discharged in a healthy condition on the 10th postnatal day. If the most common causes of severe neonatal hemolytic disease such as Rh and ABO incompatibilities cannot be demonstrated in a newborn with significant hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia, anti-E hemolytic disease should strongly be considered in differential diagnosis. It should be kept in mind that a very severe from of minor group antibody hemolytic disease characterized by anemia and severe hyperbilirubinemia many exchange transfusions may be encountered during the course of the disease. ( info)

17/120. Hyporegenerative anemia associated with Rh hemolytic disease: treatment failure of recombinant erythropoietin.

    A postnatal hyporegenerative anemia may complicate Rh hemolytic disease. Intramedullary hemolysis, bone marrow suppression, and erythropoietin deficiency have been implicated etiologically. Treatment with recombinant erythropoietin (r-EPO) has yielded encouraging preliminary results. The authors describe an infant with rh isoimmunization who developed severe hyporegenerative anemia unresponsive to a 5-week course of r-EPO. Two additional doses at 12 weeks resulted in brisk reticulocytosis, coinciding with a 16-fold decline in the anti-Rh(D) antibody titer. Thus, treatment with r-EPO may be ineffective when anti-Rh(D) antibody titers are high. The authors also show that erythropoietin deficiency in hyporegenerative anemia is not as frequent and severe as originally thought. ( info)

18/120. Diagnosing hemolytic disease of the newborn.

    A Rh negative, pregnant female presented to a major medical center for possible Rh alloimmunization. This female had nine previous pregnancies, including three spontaneous abortions, four live births, and two fetal demises. Because of poor prenatal care, the immunization Rh immune globulin was administered to only the first two pregnancies. After much laboratory testing and treatment, this tenth pregnancy also ended in fetal demise. ( info)

19/120. Rh negative status and isoimmunization update: a case-based approach to care.

    Prior to the 1970s and the advent of Rho (D) immune globulin (RIG) for Rh negative women, hemolytic disease of the newborn led to morbidity, long-term disabilities, and mortality. Antepartum RIG administration has been a standard of practice since 1983. Yet, rh isoimmunization (sensitization) and its sequelae have not been completely eradicated. Rh-related issues remain clinical challenges facing perinatal and neonatal nurses. Evidence for the administration of RIG prenatally and during the postpartum period is presented including controversies and challenges. Current information about fetal and neonatal care of erythroblastosis fetalis and immune hydrops is also presented. ( info)

20/120. Fetal-maternal bleed in the second trimester of pregnancy. A report of two cases.

    Two cases of nontraumatic fetal-maternal bleeding occurred in the second trimester. Both presented with mild, lower quadrant tenderness similar to round ligament pain, illustrating the potential for a misdiagnosis. ( info)
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