Cases reported "Rhabdoid Tumor"

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1/53. central nervous system atypical teratoid tumor/rhabdoid tumor: response to intensive therapy and review of the literature.

    central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATT/RT) of infancy and childhood is a unique histologic entity with an extremely aggressive natural history. Standard therapy for infant and childhood medulloblastoma, for which this entity is often mistaken, has been ineffective; most children survive less than 12 months after diagnosis. Intensified therapy has been recently used for children with this disease, with promising results [1,2]. We report four cases of ATT/RT in young children; all had subtotal resections and localized disease at diagnosis. One child treated prior to bone marrow transplant availability died of progressive disease 9 months after diagnosis. Another child, treated with high-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy in preparation for bone marrow transplant, had a recurrence and died 20 months after diagnosis, without undergoing the transplant. Two children received high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone-marrow transplant and had a good response to treatment; one survived 19 months, the other child is free of disease 46 months from diagnosis. Intensified therapy has altered the natural history of central nervous system ATT/RT.
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2/53. Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the CNS: cytopathology and immunohistochemistry of insulin-like growth factor-II, insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1, cathepsin d, and Ki-67.

    insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II is a potent growth factor, normally controlled by a number of other factors, including IGF binding proteins and IGF binding protein proteases. In general, the latter increase the bioavailability of IGF by cleaving IGF binding proteins. cathepsin d (an IGF binding protein protease) was also implicated in tumor invasion. Although IGF-II was implicated in the pathogeneses of various childhood neoplasms, its significance in the pathogenesis of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system (ATRT-CNS) was not studied to date. We present clinicopathologic features of two cases of ATRT-CNS. In addition, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections were stained immunohistochemically for IGF-II, IGF receptor type 1, cathepsin d, and Ki-67. Both tumors demonstrated diffuse strong cytoplasmic positivity for IGF-II, diffuse cytoplasmic and focal membranous positivity for IGF receptor type I, and diffuse cytoplasmic positivity for cathepsin d. The Ki-67 labeling indices were 10.0% and 1.4%. We conclude that ATRT-CNS cells express both IGF-II and IGF receptor type 1, supporting the hypothesis that autocrine/paracrine stimulation of cell growth by IGF-II might be one mechanism involved in ATRT-CNS tumorigenesis. cathepsin d expressed by the tumor cells might also be involved in both tumor cell invasion and growth. The exact pathogenesis of ATRT-CNS remains to be elucidated.
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3/53. Pineal malignant rhabdoid tumor with chondroid formation in an adult.

    A pineal tumour in a 27-year-old male is presented with the characteristic histological features of a pineal malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) with chondroid formation. Occasionally, tumor cells contained a single well-demarcated hyaline globular inclusion within the cytoplasm adjacent to the nucleus. The stroma of these tumors tends to be densely hyalinized and become chondroid. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen, chromogranin a, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, S-100 protein, and muscle actin. Despite surgery and radiochemotherapy, the tumor recurred in the pineal region and metastasized to the lower lobe of right lung. The patient died 2 years after the initial diagnosis. This is the second published case of central nervous system-MRT appearing in an adult. The clinical and pathological features of pineal MRT in this patient are presented.
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4/53. Germline INI1 mutation in a patient with a central nervous system atypical teratoid tumor and renal rhabdoid tumor.

    We describe a four-month-old child who presented with an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the brain and subsequently developed a renal rhabdoid tumor. Distinct histologic features, immunophenotypic profiles, and deletions of chromosome 22 were supportive of two primary tumors. An identical mutation in exon 7 of the INI1 rhabdoid tumor suppressor gene was identified in both tumors, as well as in normal kidney tissue. We propose that this germline INI1 mutation predisposed the child to the development of both malignancies. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that rhabdoid tumors in all sites have a common genetic etiology.
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5/53. A malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney occurring concurrently with a brain tumor: report of a case.

    Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (MRTK) is one of the most lethal neoplasms to occur in young infants. Cases of MRTK accompanying an embryonal tumor in the central nervous system have occasionally been described. We present herein an interesting case of MRTK that was clinically diagnosed preoperatively. A male infant aged 6 months with both a midline brain tumor and a renal neoplasm was transferred to our institution. Although roentgenographic evaluation suggested that the renal lesion was a Wilms' tumor, midkine (MK), a growth and differentiation factor characteristically present in the urine of patients with Wilms' tumor, was not detected. A preoperative diagnosis of MRTK was established based on the lack of urinary MK in addition to the typical clinical features of the young age and the concurrent brain tumor.
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6/53. Rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system.

    Rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system are rare malignancies with a still almost uniformly fatal outcome. There is still no proven curative therapy available. We report our experience with nine patients with central nervous system rhabdoid tumors. Gross complete surgical removal of the tumor was achieved in six patients. Seven patients received intensive chemotherapy. Four of these were treated in addition with both neuroaxis radiotherapy and a local boost directed to the tumor region, while two patients received local radiotherapy only. The therapy was reasonably well tolerated in most cases. Despite the aggressive therapy, eight of the nine patients died from progressive tumor disease, and one patient died from hemorrhagic brain stem lesions of unknown etiology. The mean survival time was 10 months after diagnosis. Conventional treatment, although aggressive, cannot change the fatal prognosis of central nervous system rhabdoid tumors. As these neoplasms are so rare, a coordinated register would probably be a good idea, offering a means of learning more about the tumor's biology and possible strategies of treatment.
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7/53. Spinal atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in an infant.

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system in infancy and childhood was established as an entity based on histological, immunohistochemical, and cytogenetic studies. We report the case of a 7-month-old girl who presented with progressive paraplegia and hypesthesia of her legs. Imaging studies revealed a spinal cord mass occupying the entire spinal canal below the T(7) level. Through a T(12)-L(3) laminectomy, the intramedullary tumor was partially debulked. Histologically, the tumor specimen had rhabdoid cells, and immunostaining showed vimentin and cytokeratin positivity. No abnormality of chromosome 22q was detected with the fluorescence in situ hybridization method.
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8/53. central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour of infancy. CT and mr findings.

    In 1995, as a result of the observation of Rhabdoid elements among the other components of a Teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (TRT), a new nomenclature was introduced, Atypical Teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) of infancy and childhood. We report the clinical history and radiological findings in a child affected by central nervous system (CNS) ATRT.
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9/53. CSF cytology of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the brain in a two-year-old girl: a case report.

    Atypical teratoma/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) of the central nervous system is a highly malignant neoplasm in infants and early childhood. Approximately one third of patients develop intracranial dissemination with involvement of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). The clinical, radiological, and pathological features have been described, but cytology of the tumor cells in CSF has not. Multiple CSF samples were examined in a case of AT/RT in a 2-yr-old girl. The most consistent cytologic features of AT/RT are the large size of the tumor cells, eccentricity of the nuclei, and prominent nucleoli. The differential diagnosis includes medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the brain. Because AT/RT often contains PNET-like regions, the differential diagnosis mainly relies on the presence or absence of large rhabdoid tumor cells. Cytological examination of CSF from a patient with AT/RT is important in the early diagnosis, disease progression analysis, and therapy modulation.
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10/53. Complex rearrangement of chromosomes 6 and 11 as the sole anomaly in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system.

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system is a rare childhood tumor with a distinct histologic appearance and an aggressive clinical course. Few tumors have been analyzed cytogenetically. The only consistent chromosomal abnormality identified in some of these tumors has been monosomy or deletions of chromosome 22; in others, a normal chromosome 22 was present. The authors report an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid neoplasm of the central nervous system with a novel complex rearrangement affecting chromosomes 6 and 11 as the sole anomaly. The involvement of region 11p15 could be important in the pathogenesis of this entity.
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