Cases reported "Rhabdomyosarcoma"

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1/202. bone marrow metastases in disseminated alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: case report with ultrastructural study and review.

    A case of desseminated alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in an 18-year-old male with leuco-erythroblastic anaemia is described. Numerous bizarre malignant cells, including frequent multinucleated giant cells, were seen in bone marrow aspirates, and osteolytic lesions appeared late in the clinical course. The primary site of the neoplasm remained undertermined during life and also at necropsy, which revealed minute pulmonary metastases and extensive lymph nodal, pleural and skeletal deposits. The diagnosis was confirmed on necropsy tissue by ultrastructural examination which demonstrated numerous thin (5 nm) and thick (15 nm) intracytoplasmic filaments in tumour cells, sometimes organized in bundles; scattered dense Z-band-like bodies, and rod-shaped structures were also seen. The fine structure of the rhabdomyosarcoma in the present case is compared with previous ultrastructural studies. Elongated, thick intracytoplasmic filaments whose diameter corresponds to that of myosin myofilaments are strong evidence for rhabdomyoblastic differentiation and are considered to be the sine qua non of a positive electron microscopic diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma. Orgaized bundles of filaments and Z-band-like dense bodies are usually present, and rod-shaped structures are found infrequently, but none of these are necessary for the ultrastructural diagnosis.
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2/202. Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterus in a postmenopausal woman with elevated serum CA125.

    BACKGROUND: Pure rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterus is an exceedingly rare tumor. While there are no commonly associated tumor markers, a previously reported case confirmed CA125 production by a pure uterine rhabdomyosarcoma. CASE: We describe a postmenopausal woman who presented with vaginal bleeding and was diagnosed with pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterus. Of particular interest was an elevated serum CA125 level at presentation. Immunohistochemical staining with CA125 antibody, however, showed no activity within the tumor. Despite aggressive therapy, the patient experienced distant nodal metastases and succumbed to the disease within 25 months of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Our patient illustrates the typical presentation and aggressive behavior of this rare neoplasm. While serum CA125 may be a useful tumor marker in selected patients, elevated levels do not directly reflect tumor burden when associated with negative immunohistochemical staining.
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3/202. rhabdomyosarcoma in a patient with cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome.

    A boy with characteristic facial features, pulmonary valvular stenosis, ectodermal abnormalities, growth failure, and mental retardation was admitted for intestinal occlusion at 20 months of age. Clinical findings were consistent with a diagnosis of cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC-s), and a huge abdominal mass was evident on computed tomography scan. A biopsy was performed, and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma was diagnosed. Molecular analysis was performed by reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on tumor rna to seek the chimerical transcript of the most common soft tissue sarcoma translocations and analyze neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) gene expression. Translocations involving 1;13, 2;13, and 11;22 were not found, and the specific transcripts of the NF1 gene were present. Chemotherapy was implemented, but the child died 7 months later of tumor progression. Few patients with CFC-s have been described, and their follow-up is not well known. The association of CFC-s with rhabdomyosarcoma has not been reported previously, but other neoplasms have been reported in patients with noonan syndrome, a condition similar to CFC-s. More observations are needed, but this and other reports suggest there could be a higher risk of malignancy in patients with syndromes in the Noonan phenotype category.
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4/202. Pleomorphic large cell sarcoma of the spleen with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation.

    An unusual case is reported of pleomorphic large cell sarcoma of the spleen with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation in a 34-year old male. According to our knowledge, such a neoplasm has never been reported in the literature.
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5/202. Uterine pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma in a patient receiving tamoxifen therapy.

    INTRODUCTION: tamoxifen has been used as adjuvant therapy for the treatment of breast cancer. Its use has been associated with the development of proliferative endometrial lesions such as polyps, hyperplasia, and carcinoma. Mesenchymal tumors including malignant mixed mullerian tumors, endometrial stromal sarcomas, adenosarcomas, and leiomyosarcomas have been more recently described with tamoxifen use. CASE REPORT: This report describes the first case of a pure uterine rhabdomyosarcoma in a patient receiving tamoxifen therapy. DISCUSSION: Although uterine rhabdomyosarcomas are rare tumors and may arise de novo, we discuss the possible role of tamoxifen in the development of these mesenchymal tumors.
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keywords = cancer
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6/202. A case of infantile rhabdomyofibrosarcoma with immunohistochemical, electronmicroscopical, and genetic analyses.

    A case of infantile rhabdomyofibrosarcoma arising on the buttocks of a 15-month-old boy is reported with histological, immunohistochemical, electronmicroscopical, and cytogenetic findings. Histological examination showed a proliferation of spindle-shaped cells in a fasciculated pattern, with occasional rounded rhabdomyoblastic cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells expressed desmin and MyoD1 but were only weakly positive for myoglobin. No clear rhabdomyoblastic features were observed by electronmicroscopic examination. Chromosome analysis showed a clone of 46, XY, der(2)t(2;11)(q37;q13), different from any karyotypic abnormality in the original report of this neoplasm. loss of heterozygosity at 11p15.5, the most frequent genetic alteration in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, was not detected. The low degree of striated muscle differentiation and tumor localization supported the diagnosis of infantile rhabdomyofibrosarcoma rather than spindle-cell rhabdomyosarcoma in this case. The present case has been uneventful as of 25 months after surgery. The rather long recurrence-free period, which has not been reported in previous cases, may be attributable to chemotherapy-induced rhabdoid differentiation of the tumor cells.
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7/202. Molecular features of a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line with spontaneous metastatic progression.

    A novel human cell line was established from a primary botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma. reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction investigations of this cell line, called RUCH-2, demonstrated expression of the regulatory factors PAX3, Myf3 and Myf5. After 3.5 months in culture, cells underwent a crisis after which Myf3 and Myf5 could no longer be detected, whereas PAX3 expression remained constant over the entire period. karyotype analysis revealed breakpoints in regions similar to previously described alterations in primary rhabdomyosarcoma tumour samples. Interestingly, cells progressed to a metastatic phenotype, as observed by enhanced invasiveness in vitro and tumour growth in nude mice in vivo. On the molecular level, microarray analysis before and after progression identified extensive changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix. As expected, down-regulation of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases and up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases were observed. Extensive down-regulation of several death receptors of the tumour necrosis factor family suggests that these cells might have an altered response to appropriate apoptotic stimuli. The RUCH-2 cell line represents a cellular model to study multistep tumorigenesis in human rhabdomyosarcoma, allowing molecular comparison of tumorigenic versus metastatic cancer cells.
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keywords = cancer
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8/202. Primary meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma in a child with hypomelanosis of Ito.

    Intracranial rhabdomyosarcomas are rare neoplasms, and those thought to be primary meningeal tumors are even more rare. Hypomelanosis of Ito is a neurocutaneous disorder believed to involve a defect in cells of neural crest origin. We report the case of a 15-month-old boy with hypomelanosis of Ito who developed a primary meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma. The patient initially presented with hydrocephalus and 2 months later developed neurologic signs localizing to the spinal cord. Radiologic studies revealed widespread leptomeningeal enhancement with compression of the spinal cord at C5-C7. A brain biopsy revealed a tumor diffusely involving the meninges. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of rhabdomyoblasts, many of which showed prominent cross-striations on routine hematoxylin-eosin staining. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma in a patient with hypomelanosis of Ito and the fourth reported case of a primary meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma reported in the world literature.
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9/202. Sclerosing, pseudovascular rhabdomyosarcoma in adults. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of three cases.

    rhabdomyosarcoma in adults represents a rare soft tissue neoplasm which is seen most frequently in its pleomorphic subtype in this age group. Very rarely, clear cell and spindle-cell variants have been reported. In this study we describe three cases of rhabdomyosarcoma in adult patients, characterised by prominent hyaline sclerosis and a pseudovascular growth pattern. All cases were identified in the consultation files of one of the authors and routinely processed. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin sections with the alkaline phosphatase-antialkaline phosphatase method. The patients, two women and one man, were 40, 41, and 56 years old. One developed a deep-seated soft tissue mass in the left lower leg, and one, a tumour of the left upper jaw. In one patient a bone tumour in the proximal body of the sacrum without extension into soft tissues was seen. The patients were treated by wide excision, piecemeal excision and incomplete excision in one case each; additional radiotherapy was performed in all three cases, and chemotherapy in two patients. In one patient multiple pulmonary metastases were noted, which showed progression despite systemic chemotherapy. Histologically, the neoplasms were composed of round/polygonal and spindle-shaped tumour cells including typical rhabdomyoblasts. In all cases a pseudovascular pattern and prominent hyaline sclerosis of the intercellular matrix was seen. Immunohistochemically, tumour cells stained positively for desmin and muscle actin (HHF35) and also for markers of striated muscle differentiation (myogenin, MyoD1, fast myosin). In this paper an unusual morphological variant of rhabdomyosarcoma arising in adult patients is described, which should be added to the morphological spectrum of these neoplasms.
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10/202. Fractionated, three-dimensional, planning-assisted proton-radiation therapy for orbital rhabdomyosarcoma: a novel technique.

    PURPOSE: Most children with orbital rhabdomyosarcoma will survive their disease. However, conventional photon-radiation treatment, as part of multimodality therapy, results in varying degrees of long-term functional and cosmetic side effects. This report introduces external beam proton radiation therapy (PRT) as a conformal, three-dimensional planned radiation technique for this disease, analyzes normal tissue dosimetry, and describes the technique's application in the first 2 patients. MATERIAL AND methods: Between January 1995 and February 1996, 2 patients underwent PRT following biopsy and chemotherapy for orbital rhabdomyosarcoma. Fifty and 55 cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) were delivered to the gross tumor volume and 40 CGE to clinical target volumes in both patients. A relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1 was utilized to correlate proton dose calculations with CGE. To achieve dose conformity, a "patch technique" was utilized, where target regions were divided into segments, each treated by a separate proton field. Dose-volume histograms were obtained for target and nontarget regions, including lens, bony orbit, pituitary gland, optic chiasm, optic nerves, lacrimal gland, and ipsilateral frontal and temporal lobes. RESULTS: At 3.4 and 2.5 years after PRT, both patients are clinically and radiographically free of disease. visual acuity remains excellent, without signs of cataract formation; pituitary function is normal; cosmetically, only mild enophthalmos is noticeable. Doses to 90%, 50%, and 5% of lens volume were kept at less than 1%, less than 2%, and less than 8%, respectively. Fifty percent of lacrimal gland volume received less than 36% of the prescribed dose and 50% of the volume of the optic chiasm, pituitary gland, and hypothalamus were restricted to less than 2%. Proton conformity to orbital contents resulted in between 9% and 36% of the prescribed dose reaching the ipsilateral temporal and frontal lobes immediately adjacent to bony orbit (5% volume). CONCLUSION: PRT can offer excellent sparing of lens and selected intraorbital and ocular normal structures, while maintaining conformal target-dose coverage. The steep dose gradient beyond the orbit minimizes irradiation of normal brain parenchyma, with almost complete sparing of the pituitary gland. Reduction of integral irradiation exposure of the periorbital region will, hopefully, reduce the risk of second malignancy later in life. Reduced radiation dose to specific organs in close proximity to, but not part of the target region promises improved functional outcome and better cosmesis for childhood cancer survivors.
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keywords = cancer
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