Cases reported "Rhabdoviridae Infections"

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1/6. Mokola virus infection: description of recent South African cases and a review of the virus epidemiology.

    Five cases of Mokola virus, a lyssavirus related to rabies, are described. The cases occurred in cats from the East london, Pinetown and Pietermaritzburg areas of south africa from February 1996 to February 1998. Each of the cats was suspected of being rabid and their brains were submitted for laboratory confirmation. Four of the cases were positive, but with atypical fluorescence, and 1 was negative. Mokola virus infection was identified by anti-lyssavirus nucleocapsid monoclonal antibody typing. As in rabies cases, the predominant clinical signs were of unusual behaviour. aggression was present, but only during handling. Four of the 5 cats had been vaccinated for rabies, which is consistent with other studies that show that rabies vaccination does not appear to protect against Mokola virus. Since Mokola may be confused with rabies, the incidence of Mokola virus may be more common in Africa than is currently reported. As human infections may be fatal, the emergence of this virus is a potential threat to public health.
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keywords = rabies
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2/6. Australian bat lyssavirus infection: a second human case, with a long incubation period.

    In December 1998, a 37-year-old queensland woman died from a rabies-like illness, 27 months after being bitten by a flying fox (fruit bat). Molecular techniques enabled diagnosis of infection with Australian bat lyssavirus (ABL), the second human case to be recognised and the first to be acquired from a flying fox. It must be assumed that any bat in australia could transmit ABL; anyone bitten or scratched by a bat should immediately wash the wounds thoroughly with soap and water and promptly seek medical advice.
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keywords = rabies
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3/6. Isolation of a European bat lyssavirus type 2 from a Daubenton's bat in the United Kingdom.

    European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) has been isolated once previously from a bat in the UK in June 1996. In September 2002, a Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) found in Lancashire developed abnormal behaviour, including unprovoked aggression, while it was in captivity. brain samples from the bat were tested for virus of the lyssavirus genus, which includes EBLV-2 (genotype 6), and classical rabies virus (genotype 1). A positive fluorescent antibody test confirmed that it was infected with a lyssavirus, and PCR and genomic sequencing identified the virus as an EBLV-2a. Phylogenetic comparisons with all the published sequences from genotype 6 showed that it was closely related to the previous isolate of EBLV-2 in the UK and suggested links to isolates from bats in The netherlands. The isolation of EBLV-2 from a bat found on the west coast of england provides evidence that this virus may be present within the UK Daubenton's bat population at a low prevalence level.
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keywords = rabies
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4/6. Fatal human rabies caused by European bat lyssavirus type 2a infection in scotland.

    We wish to report the first recorded case of indigenous human rabies caused by a bat bite in the United Kingdom in 100 years. This instructive case report highlights a number of key lessons: first, bites from insectivorous bats indiginous to the United Kingdom can cause rabies in humans; second, rabies immunization is essential for bat-handlers, and postexposure treatment for rabies is essential for patients bitten by bats; third, patients able to give a history who present with acute flaccid paralysis and/or presumptive viral encephalitis should be asked if they have been bitten by bats, irrespective of travel history, or this history should be obtained from family or friends; fourth, antemortem diagnosis of bat rabies (EBLV type 2a infection) in humans is possible using RT-PCR.
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ranking = 1.8
keywords = rabies
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5/6. Case report: isolation of a European bat lyssavirus type 2a from a fatal human case of rabies encephalitis.

    A 55-year-old bat conservationist was admitted to Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, scotland, on November 11, 2002, with an acute haematemesis. He gave a 5-day history of pain and paraesthesia in the left arm, followed by increasing weakness of his limbs with evidence of an evolving encephalitis with cerebellar involvement. The patient had never been vaccinated against rabies and did not receive postexposure treatment. Using a hemi-nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), saliva samples taken intravitam from different dates proved positive for rabies. A 400-bp region of the nucleoprotein gene was sequenced for confirmation and identified a strain of European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) type 2a. The diagnosis was confirmed using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and by RT-PCR on three brain samples (cerebellum, medulla, and hippocampus) taken at autopsy. In addition, a mouse inoculation test (MIT) was performed. Between 13 and 17 days postinfection, clinical signs of a rabies-like illness had developed in all five inoculated mice. brain smears from each infected animal were positive by the FAT and viable virus was isolated. This fatal incident is only the second confirmed case of an EBLV type-2 infection in a human after exposure to bats.
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ranking = 1.4
keywords = rabies
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6/6. Non-rabies lyssavirus human encephalitis from fruit bats: Australian bat lyssavirus (pteropid lyssavirus) infection.

    A 39-year-old woman died of encephalitis a few weeks after being scratched by fruit bats. autopsy disclosed meningoencephalomyelitis, and revealed neuronal intracytoplasmic inclusions which had similarities to Negri bodies of rabies. Laboratory investigations detected a lyssavirus type previously identified only in fruit bats. This appears to be the first human case of encephalitis due to this lyssavirus type.
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keywords = rabies
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