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1/3. deer ked-induced occupational allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    BACKGROUND: deer keds (elk fly) have not previously been described as a cause of respiratory or conjunctival sensitization. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of IgE-mediated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis from occupational exposure to deer ked. methods: Skin prick testing (SPT) was performed with pollens, animal danders, mites, molds, and deer ked. The serum deer ked-specific IgE level was examined in ImmunoSpot and radioallergosorbent test assays, and deer ked IgE-binding fractions and their specificities were examined in immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition assays. Nasal provocation testing (NPT) and conjunctival provocation testing (CPT) were performed to detect the association between deer ked sensitization and rhinoconjunctival symptoms. Both SPT and NPT were performed with deer ked whole-body extract, whereas CPT was performed with deer ked wing. RESULTS: The results of SPT, NPT, and CPT were positive for deer ked. In laboratory tests, serum deer ked-specific IgE antibodies were demonstrated in radioallergosorbent test and ImmunoSpot assays. In immunoblot, IgE-binding bands were demonstrated at 17, 33, 70, and 85 kDa, which were clearly inhibited with deer ked extract but not with the control extract. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational IgE-mediated rhinoconjunctival allergy to deer ked was confirmed in this patient.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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2/3. proteins: chymopapain and insulin.

    We studied clinical and immunologic aspects of the reactions to two newly introduced drugs, chymopapain and human recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid insulin (HI), in patients demonstrating allergies to one of these two drugs. We then used this information to improve our ability to diagnose and prevent chymopapain allergy and to further our understanding of systemic insulin allergy and its management. Of the patients who were sensitive to chymopapain, one had severe anaphylaxis to intradisc injection while the other had rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria with occupational exposure. The latter demonstrated cutaneous reactivity to papain; the former refused skin testing. Both demonstrated immunoglobulin (Ig) E and IgG to chymopapain as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We have prospectively skin tested 61 patients with chymopapain. Sixty-one patients have had negative skin tests and have tolerated the intradisc injection of chymopapain without incident. We are continuing our prospective skin test study in order to identify a population at risk for allergy to chymopapain. Two patients with systemic allergic reactions to animal insulin have at least as much cutaneous reactivity and IgE and IgG antibodies to HI as to porcine insulin. A large local reaction occurred during an attempt to desensitize one of them to HI; the patient was subsequently desensitized without difficulty to porcine insulin, to which she was less skin reactive. We conclude that HI will not eliminate insulin allergy in patients with systemic allergy to animal insulin and that such patients will continue to require the usual therapeutic measures for insulin allergy.
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ranking = 2
keywords = animal
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3/3. Anaphylactic shock following povidone.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a patient with an anaphylactic reaction related to povidone administration. CASE SUMMARY: A 37-year-old man with a history of allergic rhinitis presented with urticaria, dyspnea, wheezing, rhinorrhea, and dysphonia 20 minutes after the intraarticular administration of mepivacaine hydrochloride and paramethasone acetate in his right knee. Two months after this episode, he was admitted for controlled provocation tests. Tests on mepivacaine were negative. The preparation of paramethasone contained the excipients benzalkonium chloride, polysorbate 80, and povidone. in vitro tests and provocation were negative with polysorbate 80 and benzalkonium chloride, but positive with povidone. DISCUSSION: povidone, a mixture of synthetic polymers, is commonly used as an excipient in pharmaceutical products, an additive in food products, and a dispersant and stabilizer in hairsprays. Although it is well tolerated when used topically or parenterally, local and systemic effects have been reported. Furthermore, multiorgan involvement resulting from accumulation of the drug in the reticuloendothelial system has been described. The immunologic properties of povidone have not been explored in humans, but have been in animals. In fact, the capacity of povidone to release histamine and its immunogenicity are proportional to its molecular weight. An immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated hypersensitivity reaction in asthma has been reported. In our case, povidone was responsible for the syndrome. However, we cannot determine the exact mechanism. An unspecific histamine release and/or an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity could be involved. CONCLUSIONS: povidone was responsible for a severe anaphylactic reaction in our patient. The possibility of an iatrogenic adverse effect caused by the excipient but not by the active ingredient should be considered in patients exhibiting similar symptoms. We believe that the excipients used in the preparation of all medicines should be disclosed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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