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1/52. New occupational allergen in citrus farmers: citrus red mite (Panonychus citri).

    BACKGROUND: There have been several reports of occupational allergy to spider mites (tetranychidae), but no published report has described citrus red mite (CRM, Panonychus citri)-induced occupational asthma confirmed by specific bronchial challenge. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical and immunologic characteristics of CRM-induced occupational asthma. methods AND RESULTS: We encountered 16 cases of CRM-induced occupational asthma among farmers cultivating citrus fruits. Asthmatic attacks corresponded closely with their work on citrus farms. The mean duration of the latent period was 12.9 (range 7 to 20) years. During their first visit to our clinic, nine patients with FEV1 lower than 70% of predictive value showed reversible airway obstruction after inhalation of bronchodilator, and seven with FEV1 greater than 70% of predictive value showed airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Fifteen of the 16 also complained of recurrent nasal symptoms, which had developed at an earlier time than the asthmatic symptoms. They showed strong positive reactions to CRM extract on skin prick test (A/H ratio > or = 1.0) and had high serum specific IgE antibody against CRM which was detected by ELISA. skin prick test with common inhalant allergens revealed that 10 had an isolated positive response to CRM with negative results to common inhalant allergens in their environment. The ELISA inhibition tests with CRM demonstrated significant inhibitions by CRM in a dose-dependent manner, while minimal inhibitions were noted by D. pteronyssinus and mugwort allergens. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that CRM could induce IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction in exposed workers on citrus farm.
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2/52. Allergic fungal sinusitis. A report of two cases with diagnosis by intraoperative aspiration cytology.

    BACKGROUND: Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a newly recognized form of sinusitis characterized by opacification of the paranasal sinuses by "allergic mucin" (AM) admixed with scattered fungal organisms. AM consists of necrotic, or partially necrotic, eosinophils and Charcot-Leyden crystals suspended in lakes of laminated, mucinous material. AFS is characterized by the absence of bone or soft tissue invasion, purulent exudate or granulomatous inflammation. Clinically, it is important to differentiate AFS from both acute invasive fungal sinusitis and noninvasive mycetoma because the three diseases are treated with different modalities and have different prognoses. Although the radiologic features of AFS are often characteristic, occasionally it may be difficult to exclude neoplasia. CASES: Two cases of AFS, in which intraoperative diagnosis was made on the basis of the presence of both AM and fungal organisms, are reported. CONCLUSION: Cytologic diagnosis of AFS can be made from intraoperative sinus aspirates from the presence of AM and fungal elements. AM and fungi provide presumptive evidence for a noninvasive, allergic fungal disease and can help reassure clinicians intraoperatively and guide clinical management.
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ranking = 1.0466410961534
keywords = nasal, nose
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3/52. Treating allergic rhinitis in pregnancy. safety considerations.

    Allergic rhinitis affects approximately one-third of women of childbearing age. As a result, symptoms ranging from sneezing and itching to severe nasal obstruction may require pharmacotherapy. However, product labels state that medications for allergic rhinitis should be avoided during pregnancy due to lack of fetal safety data, even though the majority of the agents have human data which refute these notions. We present a systematic and critical review of the medical literature on the use of pharmacotherapy for the management of allergic rhinitis during pregnancy. Electronic databases and other literature sources were searched to identify observational controlled studies focusing on the rate of fetal malformations in pregnant women exposed to agents used to treat allergic rhinitis and related diseases compared with controls. immunotherapy and intranasal sodium cromoglycate (cromolyn) and beclo-methasone would be considered as first-line therapy, both because of their lack of association with congenital abnormalities and their superior efficacy to other agents. First-generation (e.g. chlorpheniramine) and second-generation (e.g. cetirizine) antihistamines have not been incriminated as human teratogens. However, first-generation antihistamines are favoured over their second generation counterparts based on their longevity, leading to more conclusive evidence of safety. There are no controlled trials with loratadine and fexofenadine in human pregnancy. Oral, intranasal and ophthalmic decongestants (e.g. pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine and oxymetazoline, respectively) should be considered as second-line therapy, although further studies are needed to clarify their fetal safety. No human reproductive studies have been reported with the ophthalmic antihistamines ketorolac and levocabastine, although preliminary data reported suggest no association between pheniramine and congenital malformations. There are no documented epidemiological studies with intranasal corticosteroids (e.g. budesonide, fluticasone propionate, mometasone) during pregnancy; however, inhaled corticosteroids (e.g. beclomethasone) have not been incriminated as teratogens and are commonly used by pregnant women who have asthma. In summary, women with allergic rhinitis during pregnancy can be treated with a number of pharmacological agents without concern of untoward effects on their unborn child. Although the choice of agents in part should be based on evidence of fetal safety, issue of efficacy needs to be addressed in order to optimally manage this condition.
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keywords = nasal
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4/52. Occupational IgE-mediated asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and contact urticaria caused by Easter lily (lilium longiflorum) and tulip.

    BACKGROUND: We report on IgE-mediated asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and contact urticaria to two liliaceae plants, tulip and Easter lily (lilium longiflorum), diagnosed in a floral shop worker. methods: Occupational asthma was diagnosed according to patient history, PEF monitoring, and a work-simulating provocation test. Flower-specific IgE was studied, and RAST inhibition tests were performed. RESULTS: skin prick testing showed positive reactions to tulip, Easter lily, and chrysanthemum. Total IgE was 180 kU/I, and specific IgE to tulip was 2.6 and to Easter lily 6.5 kU/I. In the RAST-inhibition test, no cross-reactivity was found. Occupational asthma was diagnosed by peak flow monitoring at work and at home, as well as specific inhalation challenge with Easter lily, with an immediate 18% reduction in PEF. In addition, contact urticaria and conjunctivitis were diagnosed. After a 9-year follow-up without exposure to lilies, the skin prick tests to L. longiflorum and tulip were still positive, but the specific IgE had disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: A case of IgE-mediated occupational asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and contact urticaria caused by L. longiflorum and tulip is presented. RAST inhibition tests indicated concomitant sensitization to the two liliaceae plants.
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ranking = 0.18656438461356
keywords = nose
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5/52. Respiratory allergy to mushroom spores: not well recognized, but relevant.

    BACKGROUND: Although basidiospores are a major component of the air spora in many parts of the world, their clinical significance as triggers of respiratory allergy has rarely been demonstrated. Therefore, the class of basidiomycetes as an aeroallergen is not well known. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a cause and effect relationship between respiratory allergy and basidiospores, we illustrate this case report of a 38-year-old housewife. methods: skin prick test, immunoblot, and active anterior rhinomanometry were used as diagnostic tools to verify specific reactivity of a pleurotus pulmonalis spore extract. Two atopic subjects served as controls. RESULTS: The skin prick test positive study subject reacted with subjective and objective signs including a significant drop of the FEV1 by nasal challenge at a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL of the pleurotus spore extract while both controls were negative even at a higher test concentration. IgE-immunoblot revealed several distinct bands in the serum of the pleurotus-sensitized subject. CONCLUSION: spores of pleurotus pulmonalis, a common mushroom of the fungal class of basidiomycetes, can cause specific, IgE-mediated acute rhinoconjuncivitis and asthma in sensitized individuals.
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keywords = nasal
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6/52. Sensitization to oilseed rape is not due to cross-reactivity with grass pollen.

    BACKGROUND: Oilseed rape is an important crop grown in the UK which can cause specific immunological sensitization with clinical symptoms in a relatively small number of the general population. Individuals with immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated allergy to oilseed rape have also been found to be sensitized to other pollen allergens, most frequently being grass pollen. Cross-reactivity between common grass and oilseed rape would have important implications, especially as their flowering period coincides. OBJECTIVE: We have investigated whether the cosensitization found in individuals sensitized to both oilseed rape and grass pollen is due to cross-reactivity. methods: Cross-reactivity between oilseed rape and grass pollen was determined using RAST, RAST inhibition, Western blotting and inhibition studies with Western blotting. RESULTS: Competitive RAST inhibition studies between pollen of oilseed rape and grass failed to show any cross-reactivity between the pollen types. Self-inhibition with oilseed rape resulted in 90% inhibition, whereas there was less than 10% inhibition with grass pollen. Western blotting revealed allergens of similar molecular weight in both oilseed rape and grass pollen. Despite allergens of similar molecular weights being present in both pollen types, inhibition immunoblot studies confirmed that the allergens in the two allergens were immunologically distinct. CONCLUSION: The allergens of oilseed rape and grass pollen, although similar in molecular weights, are immunologically distinct and there is no evidence of cross-reactivity between them. Individuals allergic to grass pollen will not necessarily develop a specific nasal or airway response to inhaled oilseed rape pollens.
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7/52. Corticosteroid injections of the nasal turbinates: past experience and precautions.

    Clinical experience with triamcinolone acetonide (Kenalog) injections into the nasal turbinates for allergic and vasomotor rhinitis is reported by two authors. Gratifying results have occurred in most of the over 60,000 patients treated, with no serious side effects. Two cases of intravascular injections of another corticosteroid reaching the retinal circulation are reported, and methods for preventing this complication are proposed.
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ranking = 5
keywords = nasal
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8/52. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis: report of 4 cases from saudi arabia.

    Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a newly recognized clinical entity of chronic rhinosinusitis. Over the past 3 years, 4 such patients were treated in our hospital. The clinical and pathological features of these 4 cases which merited the criteria for such diagnosis, are described. All the 4 cases had history of nasal polyps, asthma, or both with radiographical evidence of pansinusitis. Histologically, the thick greenish-brown inspissated material specimens which were collected and submitted to the laboratory showed, eosinophils, Charcot-Leyden crystals but no fungal elements were detected on routine hematoxylin and eosin sections and no tissue invasion was noted. However, scanty aspergillus hyphae were detected on sections stained with silver. All 4 cases grew aspergillus flavus only from the swabs and no other fungi were seen and all were treated by surgical debridement, aeration, oral itraconazole with no steroids.
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keywords = nasal
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9/52. Painless thyroiditis induced by the cessation of betamethasone.

    We describe the first reported case of painless thyroiditis induced by an abrupt cessation of betamethasone. A 53-year-old woman experienced transient thyrotoxicosis after the abrupt cessation of celestamine, a mixture of betamethasone and chlorpheniramine. Since neither TSH receptor- nor thyroid stimulating-antibodies were negative, and thyroid scintigram did not show the thyroid gland, she was diagnosed as having painless thyroiditis. Fourteen months after the onset of thyrotoxicosis, serum TSH was detectable without hypothyroidism. We speculate that reduction in betamethasone may be one of the triggers of painless thyroiditis.
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ranking = 0.046641096153391
keywords = nose
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10/52. Allergic vulvovaginitis in infancy: study of a case.

    BACKGROUND: the role of dust mites (Dermatophagoides pt.) in the pathogenesis of allergic vulvovaginitis is still controversial. association between this mite and atopic dermatitis, conjunctivitis, rhinitis or asthma is already known.Some authors study the possible relationship between some vulvovaginitis and local hypersensitivity. The aim of this study was to corroborate the allergic aetiology due to the mite Dermatophagoides pt. in a girl with vulvovaginitis and perennial rhinitis. methods AND RESULTS: we studied a nine year-old patient with symptoms of perennial rhinitis and unspecific vulvovaginitis of torpid evolution. In vivo and in vitro allergologic tests were performed as well as complete analytic tests including immunoglobulins, urine tests, nasal culture, exudative vaginal culture, and parasitic test.skin test was positive for Dermatophagoides pt. as well as specific IgE (99.5 kU/L). Total IgE was elevated for her age (492 kU/L). In the rest of the complementary tests, no values out of normality or pathological findings were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: considering these results, it was suspected that the nasal symptoms and the vulvovaginitis presented by the patient are of allergic aetiology by hypersensitivity to the mite Dermatophagoides pt. The study did not prove relation with bacteria, parasites, candida albicans or any inhalant allergens other than mites.After three months of treatment with oral antihistamines and topical chromones, as well as environmental avoiding measures, the symptoms totally yielded.
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