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1/85. tobacco allergy: demonstration of cross-reactivity with other members of solanaceae family and mugwort pollen.

    BACKGROUND: tobacco is a plant belonging to the solanaceae family. This plant is usually used as a contact insecticide for several infestations in some areas, such as the Canary islands. Allergy induced by inhalation of this plant is unusual. Identification of the potential allergen in growing areas is essential. OBJECTIVE: We report a patient with occupational sensitivity to an aqueous solution of cut tobacco whose clinical manifestations were rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. Past medical history was significant for seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis to mugwort pollen and oral allergy syndrome with avocado. methods: Green tobacco and cured tobacco leaf extracts were prepared, skin prick tests were performed with green tobacco, cured tobacco leaf extracts, and certain aeroallergens. Conjunctival challenge test was carried out with green tobacco and cured tobacco leaf extract. serum-specific IgE against tobacco leaf was performed by commercial CAP. CAP inhibition experiments were carried out with tobacco and artemisia vulgaris. RESULTS: Skin prick tests and conjunctival challenge tests with green tobacco and cured tobacco leaf extracts were positive, as well as serum-specific IgE by CAP, indicating an IgE-mediated sensitization. CAP inhibition experiments were carried out and it was found that tobacco, mugwort pollen, and tomato extracts inhibited the binding of the patient's serum to solid-phase tobacco leaf. No inhibition was observed when alternaria, D. pteronyssinus, and potato were used as control inhibitors. Inhibition of immunoCAP to mugwort was obtained with mugwort and tobacco extracts and no cross-reactivity to D. pteronyssinus was shown. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that tobacco can induce IgE-mediated reactions that are mediated by the existence of common antigenic epitopes between tobacco and mugwort pollen. This allergy can be a hazard of employment in the agricultural areas. ( info)

2/85. Severe systemic reactions caused by poppy seed.

    We describe a case of severe systemic reactions caused from poppy seed ingestion. Poppy seeds were suspected to be responsible for the symptoms on the basis of the clinical history. This suspicion was confirmed by skin testing and the prick-prick test. Moreover, a RAST assay was conducted with an extract of fresh food, confirming the presence of specific IgE to poppy seed. Although poppy seeds are not commonly used, we highlight the possible importance of such rare and often hidden sources of allergens. ( info)

3/85. Treating allergic rhinitis in pregnancy. safety considerations.

    Allergic rhinitis affects approximately one-third of women of childbearing age. As a result, symptoms ranging from sneezing and itching to severe nasal obstruction may require pharmacotherapy. However, product labels state that medications for allergic rhinitis should be avoided during pregnancy due to lack of fetal safety data, even though the majority of the agents have human data which refute these notions. We present a systematic and critical review of the medical literature on the use of pharmacotherapy for the management of allergic rhinitis during pregnancy. Electronic databases and other literature sources were searched to identify observational controlled studies focusing on the rate of fetal malformations in pregnant women exposed to agents used to treat allergic rhinitis and related diseases compared with controls. immunotherapy and intranasal sodium cromoglycate (cromolyn) and beclo-methasone would be considered as first-line therapy, both because of their lack of association with congenital abnormalities and their superior efficacy to other agents. First-generation (e.g. chlorpheniramine) and second-generation (e.g. cetirizine) antihistamines have not been incriminated as human teratogens. However, first-generation antihistamines are favoured over their second generation counterparts based on their longevity, leading to more conclusive evidence of safety. There are no controlled trials with loratadine and fexofenadine in human pregnancy. Oral, intranasal and ophthalmic decongestants (e.g. pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine and oxymetazoline, respectively) should be considered as second-line therapy, although further studies are needed to clarify their fetal safety. No human reproductive studies have been reported with the ophthalmic antihistamines ketorolac and levocabastine, although preliminary data reported suggest no association between pheniramine and congenital malformations. There are no documented epidemiological studies with intranasal corticosteroids (e.g. budesonide, fluticasone propionate, mometasone) during pregnancy; however, inhaled corticosteroids (e.g. beclomethasone) have not been incriminated as teratogens and are commonly used by pregnant women who have asthma. In summary, women with allergic rhinitis during pregnancy can be treated with a number of pharmacological agents without concern of untoward effects on their unborn child. Although the choice of agents in part should be based on evidence of fetal safety, issue of efficacy needs to be addressed in order to optimally manage this condition. ( info)

4/85. Respiratory allergy to mushroom spores: not well recognized, but relevant.

    BACKGROUND: Although basidiospores are a major component of the air spora in many parts of the world, their clinical significance as triggers of respiratory allergy has rarely been demonstrated. Therefore, the class of basidiomycetes as an aeroallergen is not well known. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a cause and effect relationship between respiratory allergy and basidiospores, we illustrate this case report of a 38-year-old housewife. methods: Skin prick test, immunoblot, and active anterior rhinomanometry were used as diagnostic tools to verify specific reactivity of a pleurotus pulmonalis spore extract. Two atopic subjects served as controls. RESULTS: The skin prick test positive study subject reacted with subjective and objective signs including a significant drop of the FEV1 by nasal challenge at a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL of the pleurotus spore extract while both controls were negative even at a higher test concentration. IgE-immunoblot revealed several distinct bands in the serum of the pleurotus-sensitized subject. CONCLUSION: spores of pleurotus pulmonalis, a common mushroom of the fungal class of basidiomycetes, can cause specific, IgE-mediated acute rhinoconjuncivitis and asthma in sensitized individuals. ( info)

5/85. Rush immunotherapy in a dog with severe ragweed and grass pollen allergy.

    BACKGROUND: Forty years of study of naturally occurring IgE-mediated allergy in animals is briefly reviewed. These studies provided models for study of bioactive mediators and innovative pharmacologic therapies for IgE-mediated asthma. Objective: Based on our experience with canine allergy we evaluated and treated a dog with severe grass and ragweed allergy whose allergic dermatitis was uncontrolled by H1 blockers and topical corticosteroids. The dog was miserable during the chicago grass and ragweed pollen seasons. methods: Rush immunotherapy was initiated during the ragweed season of 1997. RESULTS: Dramatic improvement was seen which persisted through the grass and ragweed seasons of 1998 after maintenance immunotherapy. CONCLUSION: The case is presented not as a model for canine immunotherapy but as an example of how animal research can be of value to both animals and humans. ( info)

6/85. Fennel, cucumber, and melon allergy successfully treated with pollen-specific injection immunotherapy.

    BACKGROUND: In subjects with both pollinosis and vegetable food allergy, most allergenic epitopes of fruits and vegetables are present in pollen. A recent study showed a marked reduction or a total disappearance of apple-induced oral allergy syndrome in patients receiving injection immunotherapy with birch pollen extracts. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether vegetable food allergy following other kinds of primary pollinosis may be successfully treated with pollen-specific immunotherapy. methods: A 34-year-old woman with long-standing pollinosis and typical oral allergy syndrome (OAS) with the ingestion of both fennel and cucumber and whose OAS was associated with immediate laryngeal edema after the ingestion of melon, was treated with two commercial depot aluminum hydroxide-adsorbed extracts of 1 grass pollen and 2 mugwort pollen 50% ragweed pollen 50%. RESULTS: After 36 months of injection specific immunotherapy, the patient was able to tolerate both fresh fennel and cucumber without consequence on open oral challenge tests. After 43 months of immunotherapy, the patient tolerated fresh melon as well on open oral challenge. She has re-introduced these vegetables in her normal diet. skin tests showed no reactivity to fresh fennel and there was a reduction of the wheal induced by fresh cucumber. CONCLUSION: Vegetable food allergy following primary sensitization to pollens, other than birch, may also be effectively reduced by pollen-specific injection immunotherapy. ( info)

7/85. fever of unknown origin in a 10-year-old boy with allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    We believe this case represents a clear example of drug fever, and it appears to be the first report to implicate ketotifen as the responsible agent, confirmed with double rechallenge. The recognition of drug fever is clinically important. Failure to recognize the etiologic relationship between the drug and fever has unnecessary consequences, including extra testing, empiric therapy, and longer hospital stays. We suggest that ketotifen should be considered as a possible cause of fever in allergic patients receiving this drug. ( info)

8/85. Rhinoconjunctivitis and occupational asthma caused by Diplotaxis erucoides (wall rocket).

    Wall rocket (Diplotaxis erucoides) is a common Crucifera plant that grows in European and American vineyards and olive groves. We present the cases of 2 farmers with rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma related to wine-growing tasks during D erucoides pollination (March-April). The aim of this work was to demonstrate that occupational symptoms were caused by D erucoides pollen sensitization. Cutaneous tests, specific IgE measurements, conjunctival and bronchial provocation tests, and peak-flow measurements during working days were performed. ( info)

9/85. asthma, rhinitis and dermatitis triggered by fungal infection: therapeutic effects of terbinafine.

    We report 2 atopic patients suffering from tinea unguium caused by trichophyton rubrum. In addition, both patients had symptoms of allergies: one had perennial rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma, the other had chronic dermatitis of the face and neck. In both cases, their allergy symptoms improved dramatically during oral therapy with the antifungal agent terbinafine (250 mg/day) and relapsed after its discontinuation. ( info)

10/85. propofol-induced bronchoconstriction: two case reports.

    IMPLICATIONS: bronchoconstriction was induced by anesthetic induction with propofol in two patients with allergic diseases. One had severe bronchospasm improved by epinephrine. propofol should be used with caution in patients with allergic disease. ( info)
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