Cases reported "Rickets"

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1/10. Rickets in an infant with williams syndrome.

    calcium homeostasis is altered in patients with williams syndrome. We report an infant in whom williams syndrome was diagnosed at 4 weeks who presented with hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and medullary nephrocalcinosis. fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated a deletion of the elastin gene on chromosome 7. This infant was treated with a low-calcium/vitamin d-deficient infant formula that resulted in the development of rickets. Replacement of the low-calcium/vitamin d-deficient formula with standard formula led to resolution of the rickets.
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2/10. Antacid-induced rickets in infancy.

    A 3-month-old premature infant presented with a "soft skull." Clinical and radiologic findings confirmed the diagnosis of rickets. biochemistry revealed normal serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and undetectable urine phosphate. These findings combined with a history of 5-6 weeks' treatment with high-dose aluminum-rich antacid established the diagnosis of antacid-induced rickets. Discontinuation of the medicine combined with phosphate and vitamin d supplementation resulted in quick resolution of all clinical, radiologic, and biochemical abnormalities. Our patient demonstrates that in premature infants antacid-induced rickets can develop within a few weeks; normal serum PTH concentration and hypophosphaturia are highly indicative of the diagnosis, and contrary to the situation in adults in whom hypercalciuria has been often described, in infants hypocalciuria is more commonly observed. Pediatricians should avoid or minimize the use of aluminum-containing antacids, and when used, carefully monitor mineral metabolism.
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3/10. A girl with rickets and nephrocalcinosis.

    A 5-year-old girl presented with short stature. She was found to have rickets due to renal phosphate wasting and nephrocalcinosis. serum parathyroid hormone was suppressed, 25-OH vitamin d was within the normal range, and 1,25-(OH)(2 )vitamin d was elevated. In addition, she had hypercalciuria, proteinuria, which was partially tubular in origin, and a reduced glomerular filtration rate of 58 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Treatment with phosphate supplements resulted in healing of the rickets and normalization of the serum 1,25-(OH)(2 )vitamin d level. This patient is an example of hypercalciuric rickets, most likely due to an inherited disorder of phosphate metabolism. Hypercalciuric rickets can be inherited as an autosomal recessive as well as autosomal dominant trait.
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4/10. A new kindred with hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria: implications for correct diagnosis and treatment.

    Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is a new autosomal form of hypophosphatemic rickets, recently described. This disease is characterized, and differs from other forms of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets and/or osteomalacia by increased serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, hypercalciuria and complete remission of the disease on phosphate therapy alone. However, only another probable Israeli kindred, and seemingly a few sporadic cases from europe, north america and japan have been reported in the literature. We describe here a new kindred of Jewish Yemenite origin (unrelated to other Israeli families) with typical HHRH. Two additional members of this family suffer from a milder asymptomatic form of the disease, which presents as absorptive hypercalciuria without signs or symptoms of bone disease. It seems to us that HHRH is underdiagnosed, due to its similarity to other hypophosphatemic syndromes in clinical, radiological and most biochemical parameters. Therefore, it is recommended that urinary calcium excretion and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations be measured in every patient with hypophosphatemic rickets/and or osteomalacia before the initiation of any therapy. The correct diagnosis of HHRN is of immense therapeutic implications. Phosphate therapy alone could cause a complete remission in HHRH, while the addition of active vitamin d metabolites, as is recommended in hypophosphatemic vitamin d resistant rickets, could cause deterioration in the patient's condition.
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5/10. Rickets: not a disease of the past.

    Rickets develops when growing bones fail to mineralize. In most cases, the diagnosis is established with a thorough history and physical examination and confirmed by laboratory evaluation. Nutritional rickets can be caused by inadequate intake of nutrients (vitamin d in particular); however, it is not uncommon in dark-skinned children who have limited sun exposure and in infants who are breastfed exclusively. vitamin d-dependent rickets, type I results from abnormalities in the gene coding for 25(OH)D3-1-alpha-hydroxylase, and type II results from defective vitamin d receptors. The vitamin d-resistant types are familial hypophosphatemic rickets and hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria. Other causes of rickets include renal disease, medications, and malabsorption syndromes. Nutritional rickets is treated by replacing the deficient nutrient. mothers who breastfeed exclusively need to be informed of the recommendation to give their infants vitamin d supplements beginning in the first two months of life to prevent nutritional rickets. vitamin d-dependent rickets, type I is treated with vitamin d; management of type II is more challenging. familial hypophosphatemic rickets is treated with phosphorus and vitamin d, whereas hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria is treated with phosphorus alone. Families with inherited rickets may seek genetic counseling. The aim of early diagnosis and treatment is to resolve biochemical derangements and prevent complications such as severe deformities that may require surgical intervention.
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6/10. Hypophosphatemic rickets with hypocalciuria following long-term treatment with aluminum-containing antacid.

    We present what we believe is the first case of rickets following prolonged treatment with aluminum containing antacids that bind phosphate, in an 18-year-old mentally retarded boy with cerebral palsy and spastic quadriplegia. As expected, serum calcitriol was increased and urinary phosphate excretion was very low. However, in contrast to all published cases of antacid induced hypophosphatemic osteomalacia in adults, despite a substantial increase in bone resorption reflected by urinary total hydroxyproline excretion, urinary calcium excretion was low rather than high, and significant hypocalcemia occurred after antacids were ceased and a phosphate salt administered. We suggest that the skeleton was so under-mineralized because of growth during prolonged phosphate deficiency, possibly augmented by anticonvulsant administration and immobilization, that increased bone resorption did not release enough calcium to cause hypercalciuria, or to prevent hypocalcemia during resumption of normal mineralization.
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7/10. Hypercalciuric hypophosphatemic rickets, mineral balance, bone histomorphometry, and therapeutic implications of hypercalciuria.

    A 14-year-old Turkish boy had severe rickets that had been clinically evident since he was 2 years of age. When he was 5 years of age, he had normal serum calcium and phosphorus levels and increased alkaline phosphatase activity. Treatment with modest dosages of vitamin d (5000 U/d for 3 weeks) resulted in hypercalcemia. At 10 years of age, high-dose vitamin d (40,000 U/d) plus phosphorus (1.1 g/d) therapy for 20 days resulted in symptomatic nephrolithiasis. When, 14 years of age, he had normocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and normal circulating parathyroid hormone concentration. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were normal but those of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were markedly increased. Rickets and osteopenia were evident on radiographs, and osteomalacia was present on trabecular bone obtained at biopsy. Balance study results showed increased intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, hypercalciuria, and increased urinary phosphorus excretion. This patient manifests an unusual form of hypophosphatemic rickets in which hypercalciuria is a cardinal feature. In contrast with most varieties of hypophosphatemia, this disorder is characterized by appropriately increased production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in response to hypophosphatemia. It is recommended that urinary calcium excretion be assessed in all patients with hypophosphatemic rickets so that appropriate therapy will be instituted.
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ranking = 6
keywords = hypercalciuria
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8/10. Hypercalciuric rickets: metabolic studies and pathophysiological considerations.

    Extensive metabolic studies were performed in a 14-year-old boy suffering from the rare clinical entity known as childhood idiopathic hypercalciuria associated with dwarfism, renal tubular abnormalities and bone lesions. The salient features were: hyperphosphaturia with hypophosphatemia, hypercalciuria with normocalcemia, elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol[1,25(OH)2D3] levels, marked intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium and phosphorus, with low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and urinary adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (c-AMP). Bone biopsy confirmed the clinical and radiological diagnosis of rickets. It appears that the following pathophysiological sequence is operating: primary renal phosphate leak with hypophosphatemia, increased 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis, enhanced intestinal calcium absorption which in turn inhibits release of PTH and c-AMP. hypercalciuria is seen to be secondary to both avid intestinal calcium absorption and depressed PTH activity, and rickets the result of phosphate depletion. Treatment with oral phosphorus only resulted in an acceleration of growth rate, cure of rickets, and return of urinary calcium excretion to normal values.
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ranking = 2
keywords = hypercalciuria
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9/10. A single case of hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria.

    A single case of hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria and an elevated level of serum 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D is reported. The characteristic features (genu valgum, rickets, short stature, increased renal phosphate excretion, decreased serum phosphorus level, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level, and normal serum calcium level) were comparable to those in hypophosphatemic vitamin D resistant rickets. Massive doses of 1 alpha-hydroxyvitamin D were not effective for the rickets and the biochemical defect in this patient. Long-term phosphate supplementation on its own resulted in the reversal of all clinical and biochemical abnormalities except for the decreased ratio between the maximum tubular reabsorption rate for phosphorus and the glomerular filtration rate. In this patient, the concentration of serum 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D seemed to be controlled by the concentration of serum phosphorus rather than by the serum parathyroid hormone level. It is noted that this is the first case of a single hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria.
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ranking = 6
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10/10. Hypercalciuric rickets: a rare cause of nephrolithiasis.

    An unusual case of rickets associated with hypercalciuria is described. In addition to proteinuria, the patient had phosphaturia, aminoaciduria, renal glucosuria and impaired renal concentration but no renal tubular acidosis. Studies did not support the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism. The findings in the patient were very similar to those in 4 previously reported cases and are suggestive of a new combination of multiple renal tubular defects.
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ranking = 1
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