Cases reported "Roseolovirus Infections"

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1/6. Severe amnesia associated with human herpesvirus 6 encephalitis after bone marrow transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) appears to have a predilection for immunocompromised patients and has been implicated as a cause of posttransplant encephalitis. However, the pathogenesis, as well as the appropriate means of diagnosis and treatment of HHV-6 encephalitis is unclear. METHOD: We describe a case of a 20-year-old male university student with anemia who presented with an acute, severe amnesia 1 month after bone marrow transplantation. His illness was subsequently attributed to HHV-6 encephalitis. RESULTS: cerebrospinal fluid analysis was consistent with encephalitis and polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of HHV-6 dna in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum. No other herpes virus particles were detected. MRI showed bilateral hippocampal involvement. Treatment with acyclovir resulted in a decrease in serum HHV-6 dna to undetectable levels, coincident with improvement of both memory and lesions on MRI. CONCLUSIONS: This case provides strong clinical and radiological evidence of the reversibility of this disease process and supports the recommendations for empiric treatment of post transplant patients with laboratory evidence of HHV-6 infection, culture or polymerase chain reaction, plus clinical symptoms compatible with HHV-6 infection.
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keywords = bone
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2/6. Human herpesvirus 6 infection mimicking juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia in an infant.

    in vitro cell culture studies of bone marrow and peripheral blood progenitor cells from patients with juvenile myclomonocytic leukemia (JMML) consistently show spontaneous proliferation and selective hypersensitivity to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). This GM-CSF hypersensitivity dose-response assay has become a component of the international diagnostic criteria for JMML. The authors report a 2-week-old boy with perinatal human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection in whom in vitro bone marrow culture studies suggested the diagnosis of JMML by showing increased spontaneous proliferation, inhibition of this growth by anti-GM-CSF antibodies, and hypersensitivity to GM-CSF. polymerase chain reaction viral studies from whole blood dna and the shell vial viral culture assay were both positive for HHV-6. The patient's condition improved with expectant treatment, with an eventual return to normal blood counts and resolution of hepatosplenomegaly. This case of perinatal HHV-6 infection shows that viruses can initially mimic the in vitro culture results found in patients with JMML. It also illustrates that patients suspected of having JMML should be observed if there are no signs of progressive disease and concurrent features suggestive of viral infection.
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keywords = macrophage, bone
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3/6. Human herpesvirus 6 meningoencephalitis successfully treated with ganciclovir in a patient who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling.

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) has recently been recognized as an important pathogen in immunocompromised hosts, such as patients who have undergone allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). Here we report a case of HHV-6 meningoencephalitis in a patient who underwent allo-BMT from an HLA-identical sibling. The patient suffered from headache, high fever, tremor, and disorientation on day 35 after allo-BMT. Findings at magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, and routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination suggested the presence of viral meningoencephalitis. We diagnosed HHV-6 meningoencephalitis by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of a CSF specimen. Successful treatment was achieved with ganciclovir. Because HHV-6 encephalitis has a potentially fatal and fulminant course, it is necessary that HHV-6 encephalitis be recognized as one of the central nervous system complications that can follow allo-BMT. PCR analysis for HHV-6 in the CSF specimen is necessary for appropriate diagnosis and treatment.
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keywords = bone
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4/6. Human herpesvirus-7 infection of the CNS with acute myelitis in an adult bone marrow recipient.

    The beta-herpesviruses, human herpesviruses-6 and -7 (HHV-6 and HHV-7), are closely related and have very similar biological behaviour. While HHV-6 is associated with encephalitis in immunosuppressed adults, HHV-7 is not recognised as a cause of neurological disease in such patients. This report describes the identification of a reactivated HHV-7 infection in the cerebrospinal fluid of an adult who presented with an acute myelitis 11 months after unrelated donor bone marrow transplant.
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5/6. codeine phosphate-induced hypersensitivity syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome related to codeine phosphate. CASE SUMMARY: A 19-year-old Japanese man was prescribed codeine phosphate 10 mg 3 times daily and several other drugs for cold symptoms. About 20 days later, an erythematous, maculopapular rash appeared and progressed to erythroderma; a spiking fever also developed. He had splenomegaly and generalized lymphadenopathy on admission. Laboratory examinations showed atypical lymphocytosis, eosinophilia, and increased liver enzyme values. The platelet count slowly decreased after admission. The increased numbers of megakaryocytes in bone marrow and platelet-associated immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies in serum were compatible with a diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenic purpura. A significant increase in IgG antibodies to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) and transient viremia were helpful in diagnosing hypersensitivity syndrome. The results of patch tests were positive for codeine phosphate. An objective causality assessment revealed that an adverse drug event was probable. DISCUSSION: codeine is an opioid analgesic. Severe adverse cutaneous reactions rarely occur. As of March 3, 2004, our case is, to our knowledge, the first report of hypersensitivity syndrome attributed to codeine phosphate. Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome is an acute, potentially life-threatening, idiosyncratic adverse reaction caused mainly by aromatic anticonvulsants. It is characterized by the triad of fever, skin rash, and internal organ involvement. Reactivation of HHV6 is involved in the pathogenesis of this syndrome and may have also caused the immune thrombocytopenic purpura in our patient. CONCLUSIONS: codeine phosphate may rarely be associated with hypersensitivity syndrome. Clinicians should be aware that the potentially fatal syndrome can be caused by various drugs.
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keywords = bone
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6/6. Human herpesvirus 6 variant B infection in adult patients after unrelated cord blood transplantation.

    Human herpesvirus 6 variant B (HHV-6B) infection was studied in 23 adult patients who underwent cord blood transplantation (CBT). HHV-6B dna was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis after CBT in the sera from 15 patients (65%) at day 14 or 15 (week 2), from 16 patients (70%) at day 21 or 22 (week 3), and from 3 patients (13%) at day 28 or 29 (week 4). HHV-6B DNAemia was found in none of the 20 patients examined at day 7 or 8 (week 1). The overall incidence of HHV-6B DNAemia reached 87% (20 of 23 patients). This incidence was much higher than after unrelated bone marrow transplantation (19%, P < .0001). In CBT patients, positive HHV-6B DNAemia at week 3 was significantly associated with early skin rash (88% versus 14%, P < .005) and grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) (69% versus 14%, P < .05). In contrast, positive HHV-6B DNAemia at week 2 was associated with neither skin rash nor aGVHD. Prospective large-scale studies are needed to determine the role of HHV-6 infection in CBT patients.
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keywords = bone
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