Cases reported "Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome"

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1/10. Abnormal deposition of type VII collagen in Kindler syndrome.

    Kindler syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disorder with features of epidermolysis bullosa and poikiloderma congenitale. Approximately 70 cases have been documented in the past 50 years, but only a few investigations of the basement membrane components have been done on these patients. The aim of this study was to examine the components of the basement membrane zone in search of the pathobiological defect(s) responsible for the clinical findings from a female 16-year-old patient diagnosed with Kindler syndrome. This patient also suffered from advanced early-onset periodontal disease. Biopsies were taken from inflamed gingiva and noninflamed oral mucosa as part of periodontal treatment. The basement membrane zone was examined using immunofluorescence microscopy to bullous pemphigoid antigens 1 and 2, collagen types IV and VII, laminins-1 and -5, and integrins alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta4. The biopsies studied revealed blistering with trauma above the level of lamina densa based on distribution of type IV collagen and laminin-1 at the blister floor. In the noninflamed mucosa, discontinuous areas of the basement membrane zone were found. Expression of the basement membrane zone components and the integrins studied appeared otherwise normal with the exception of type VII collagen which was found in abnormal locations deep in the connective tissue stroma. Our results suggest that Kindler syndrome is associated with abnormalities in the construction of the basement membrane, especially in the expression of type VII collagen. These alterations are likely to play a role as etiological factors leading to blister formation and early onset periodontal disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = epidermolysis bullosa, epidermolysis, bullosa
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2/10. A Japanese case of Kindler syndrome.

    A 25-year-old Japanese woman presented with contracture of the fingers and toes, and difficulty in opening her mouth. Her grandparents are first cousins, but none of the other members of the family are affected. Bulla formation started at birth on areas of the skin that received pressure, and in infancy and early childhood the lesions were limited only to the acral areas. She also had bilateral, incomplete syndactylies involving all web spaces (Fig. 1a). The formation of blisters ceased after the age of 15 years, but a generalized progressive poikiloderma then appeared with accompanying cutaneous atrophy of the skin of the neck, trunk, and extremities (Fig. 1b). The patient experienced mild photosensitivity of the face and neck. At age 18 years, surgical removal of the webbing of all her fingers was performed. Oral examination showed atrophy of the buccal mucosa, and an inability to fully open the mouth. The patient also suffered from poor dentition and easily bleeding gums, but had no symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. histology of separate biopsy specimens, taken from the poikilodermatous pretibial and trunk skin, showed classical features of poikiloderma, namely epidermal atrophy with flattening of the rete ridges, vacuolization of basal keratinocytes, pigmentary incontinence, and mild dermal perivascularization (Fig. 2a). Interestingly, dyskeratotic cells (Fig. 2b) and eosinophilic rounded bodies (colloid bodies) (Fig. 2c) were frequently found at the basal keratinocyte layer and in the upper dermis, respectively. Pigment was also present in the upper epidermis. To rule out the possibility of a congenital epidermolysis bullosa, ultrastructural and immunofluorescence studies were performed. Ultrastructural studies demonstrated the reduplication of the basal lamina with branching structures within the upper dermis and cleavage between the lamina densa and the cell membrane of the keratinocytes (Fig. 3a). The numbers of associated anchoring fibrils did not seem to be reduced, and colloid bodies and dyskeratotic cells were detected. Immunofluorescence studies with the antibody against type VII collagen (LH 7 : 2) were subsequently carried out. The results showed extensive broad bands with intermittently discontinuous and reticular staining at the dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ) (Fig. 3b), whereas a linear distribution is typically seen in healthy tissue (data not shown). Interestingly, direct immunofluorescence studies revealed intracellular accumulation of immunoglobulin g (IgG), IgM, IgA, and C3 in colloid bodies under the basement membrane (Fig. 3c).
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ranking = 1
keywords = epidermolysis bullosa, epidermolysis, bullosa
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3/10. Exclusion of COL7A1 mutation in Kindler syndrome.

    We describe a patient with Kindler syndrome with an 18-year follow-up who was initially misdiagnosed as suffering from dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. The patient's skin showed broad reticulate labeling for collagen VII and reduplication of the lamina densa. Screening of this patient's dna excluded any pathogenic COL7A1 mutations.
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ranking = 1
keywords = epidermolysis bullosa, epidermolysis, bullosa
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4/10. Kindler syndrome: a clinical case.

    Kindler's syndrome is a congenital disorder with simultaneous clinical characteristics of two congenital diseases: dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and congenital poikiloderma. A review is made of the literature, with the presentation of the case of a 51-year-old woman who after a number of years of implant therapy for oral rehabilitation (total upper and partial lower arch edentulous status) developed xerostomia and a series of whitish and hyperkeratotic lesions associated with other atrophic erythematous lesions lining the entire oral mucosa. The clinical case and treatment are described, with the recommendation to ensure the follow-up of such patients, in order to avoid possible degenerative transformations of the disease, in view of its chronic nature.
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ranking = 1
keywords = epidermolysis bullosa, epidermolysis, bullosa
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5/10. Kindler syndrome.

    Kindler syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with skin fragility. It is characterized by blistering in infancy, photosensitivity and progressive poikiloderma. The syndrome involves the skin and mucous membrane with radiological changes. The genetic defect has been identified on the short arm of chromosome 20. This report describes an 18-year-old patient with classical features like blistering and photosensitivity in childhood and the subsequent development of poikiloderma. The differential diagnosis of Kindler syndrome includes diseases like bloom syndrome, cockayne syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, epidermolysis bullosa, rothmund-thomson syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum. Our patient had classical cutaneous features of Kindler syndrome with phimosis as a complication.
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ranking = 1
keywords = epidermolysis bullosa, epidermolysis, bullosa
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6/10. Poikiloderma of Theresa Kindler: report of a case with ultrastructural study, and review of the literature.

    Kindler's syndrome occurred in a 13-year-old boy with parental consanguinity. The patient had acral congenital blistering and photosensitivity, both regressive, at 12 years of age, together with diffuse progressive poikiloderma, marked cutaneous atrophy, mild hyperkeratosis of the palms, gingival hypertrophy and fragility, and anal stenosis. The ultrastructural study of bullae induced by rubbing showed clefts in three levels of the dermoepidermal junction zone. A review of 14 cases in the literature consistent with Kindler's syndrome showed this to be a definite clinical entity among the other bullous hereditary poikilodermas. In two cases, ultrastructural studies showed intraepidermal, junctional, and dermal cleavage. This syndrome must be differentiated from congenital epidermolysis bullosa, Weary's syndrome, and the other bullous hereditary poikilodermas.
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ranking = 1
keywords = epidermolysis bullosa, epidermolysis, bullosa
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7/10. Kindler syndrome: report of a case with ultrastructural study and review of the literature.

    Kindler syndrome is characterized by a generalized, progressive poikiloderma with cutaneous atrophy, congenital acral skin blistering, and photosensitivity. Since the first description, approximately 70 cases have been reported worldwide, but ultrastructural studies were performed in only five patients. In none of these patients were biopsies done at birth. In our patient ultrastructural studies were performed both of the blister at birth and of the poikilodermatous and atrophic skin at 6 years of age. Some ultrastructural features in the context of a bullous disease of the newborn that resembles epidermolysis bullosa, should alert investigators to the possibility of Kindler syndrome even in absence of the typical clinical signs.
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ranking = 1
keywords = epidermolysis bullosa, epidermolysis, bullosa
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8/10. Early-onset periodontitis associated with Weary-Kindler syndrome: a case report.

    Weary-Kindler syndrome is a rare and poorly understood genetic disorder that has manifestations of both epidermolysis bullosa and poikiloderma congenitale. There are approximately 70 cases documented in the past 40 years but no cases appear in the dental literature, although dental findings have been discussed superficially in dermatological and pediatric publications. This case reports on the periodontal findings and treatment for a 16-year-old female diagnosed with the syndrome. Early exfoliation of deciduous teeth, severe periodontal bone loss around many permanent teeth, and fragile bleeding gingiva were key features. Microbiological testing revealed an absence of actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and low levels of other commonly accepted periodontal pathogens. Tests for inflammation, including AST and elastase, were positive prior to therapy and greatly decreased after mechanical root instrumentation. A beneficial effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy was observed in the short-term follow-up.
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ranking = 1
keywords = epidermolysis bullosa, epidermolysis, bullosa
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9/10. Kindler syndrome. Clinical and ultrastructural findings.

    BACKGROUND: Kindler syndrome is a genodermatosis that combines clinical features of hereditary epidermolysis bullosa and poikiloderma congenitale. The ultrastructural level of blister formation has not been well characterized. OBSERVATIONS: Two brothers with Kindler syndrome had a history of primarily acral blistering since infancy as well as photosensitivity. blister formation was found through the basal layer. Marked tonofilament clumping was found in intact keratinocytes adjacent to the blisters. The younger brother (aged 21 years) had actinic keratoses, which have not been previously described in Kindler syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of basal layer separation in both spontaneous and induced blisters in Kindler syndrome suggest this is the true level of blister formation. The finding of actinic keratoses in a young patient with Kindler syndrome suggests that some patients may be at increased risk for early solar-induced skin disease. The presence of clumped tonofilaments in keratinocytes adjacent to blistered areas suggests an abnormality of keratin 5 or 14 could be present and may play a role in blister formation in patients with Kindler syndrome.
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ranking = 1
keywords = epidermolysis bullosa, epidermolysis, bullosa
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10/10. Immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular features of Kindler syndrome distinguish it from dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

    BACKGROUND: Kindler syndrome is a rare, inherited skin disease characterized by acral bullae formation, fusion of fingers and toes, and generalized progressive poikiloderma. The purpose of this study was to clarify the nature of the bullous component of Kindler syndrome and to determine whether this inherited skin disorder represents a variant of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa or a unique independent clinical entity. OBSERVATIONS: Two unrelated patients with Kindler syndrome were studied. Electron microscopy demonstrated marked duplication of the lamina densa, and clefts were observed in areas where the lamina densa was destroyed or obscured. hemidesmosomes and anchoring fibrils showed normal features. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed normal linear labeling with antibodies against hemidesmosomal components (alpha 6 and beta 4 integrins, BPAG1, and BPAG2) and against anchoring filament components such as uncein, as detected by the 19-DEJ-1 monoclonal antibody. However, antibodies against the 3 respective laminin 5 chains, type IV collagen, and various type VII collagen epitopes (the aminoterminal NC1 domain, the central triple helical collagenous domain, and the carboxyterminal end of the triple helical collagenous domain) revealed a broad reticular staining pattern. Molecular screening of the type VII collagen gene (COL7A1) in the patients and their parents by heteroduplex analysis failed to detect any band shifts indicative of pathologic mutations. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the bullous component of Kindler syndrome is distinct from dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa caused by mutations in the type VII collagen gene. Additionally, the differential distribution patterns of uncein and laminin 5 in the patients' skin samples support the hypothesis that uncein and laminin 5 are different molecules.
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ranking = 6
keywords = epidermolysis bullosa, epidermolysis, bullosa
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