Cases reported "Rubella"

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11/55. Rubella-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in an infant.

    Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a fulminant disorder characterized pathologically by multiple-organ infiltration of hemophagocytic histiocytes in the lymphoreticular tissues. The characteristic pathologic feature is reactive histiocytic hyperplasia with leukoerythrophagocytosis in a variety of organs. This disorder occurs most often in patients in whom the immune system is compromised and has been associated with a variety of infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria, mycobacteria, spirochetes, fungi, and parasites. The authors describe a 2.5-month-old girl with rubella-associated HPS, demonstrated by postmortem liver necropsy.
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keywords = virus
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12/55. pancreatitis caused by measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine.

    Acute pancreatitis may result from viral infections, including mumps, coxsackie B, Epstein-Barr, and varicella. However, viral pancreatitis has not been reported after immunization with viral vaccines. We report the occurrence of acute pancreatitis in an adult who had received measles, mumps, and rubella II vaccine (MMR II).
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ranking = 24.275435626395
keywords = measles
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13/55. Unusual encephaloclastic lesions with paraventricular calcification in congenital rubella.

    We report an unusual case of congenital rubella. The infant was suffering from a serious encephalopathy, and both prenatal echography and neonatal CT scan showed passive ventriculomegaly with a calcified periventricular border. Usually, such lesions are strongly suggestive of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and have never previously been reported in congenital rubella. Classic cerebral lesions in rubella are related to a prominent obstructive vasculopathy. Conversely, encephaloclastic lesions in CMV infection are likely related to a necrosis of brain parenchyma following upon an initial ventriculitis, and perhaps also to a disturbance of neuronal proliferation. Recently, Carey described a neonate with proven congenital rubella and cranial ultrasound findings typical of ventriculitis. However, in spite of the close similarity between our patient's lesions and the typical CMV lesions, we think it's impossible to assert similar pathogenic mechanisms. Actually, it's quite conceivable that only a severe or extensive vasculopathy can lead to brain atrophy with periventricular calcification in congenital rubella.
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14/55. Supraventricular tachycardia in acquired rubella infection: a case report.

    A 6-year-old boy developed supraventricular tachycardia nine days after onset of the exanthem of clinical rubella. The diagnosis of rubella virus infection was confirmed serologically. Except in the neonatal period, only eight cases of cardiac involvement in acquired rubella infection have been previously reported. During epidemics, rubella virus infection should be considered in patients who manifest cardiac symptoms and signs of unknown etiology.
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keywords = virus
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15/55. Rubella-specific IgM in reinfection and risk to the fetus.

    A case of reinfection with the wild rubella virus in the 8th gestational week is reported. The patient had preexisting hemagglutination inhibition antibodies of low titer following immunization with rubella vaccine. Reinfection was accompanied by clinical symptoms and the presence of rubella-specific immunoglobulin m (IgM) of high titer. Following termination of pregnancy no rubella virus could be isolated from the fetal tissues and the fetal blood contained no specific IgM antibodies. These results should encourage the use of cordocentesis before decision on interruption of pregnancy.
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keywords = virus
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16/55. Congenital rubella syndrome associated with calcific epiphyseal stippling and peroxisomal dysfunction.

    An infant girl had the clinical and immunologic findings of congenital rubella syndrome but also had arthrogryposis multiplex and calcific epiphyseal stippling. Spastic quadriparesis developed, and both physical and behavioral development were slow. Increased spasticity of the legs at 5 1/2 years was related not to progressive rubella encephalomyelopathy but to spinal cord compression by abnormal cartilaginous tissue. The presence of a peroxisomal disorder was demonstrated by a greatly increased level of phytanic acid and slightly increased levels of hexacosanoate in serum and by reduced activity of peroxisomal dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase and a slightly increased ratio of cytosolic to peroxisomal catalase activity in cultured fibroblasts. A reduction in the number and size of peroxisomes was demonstrated in cultured fibroblasts, and a needle biopsy specimen of the liver also showed the peroxisomes to have a smaller diameter than usual. We recommend that any child with epiphyseal stippling be assessed for peroxisomal disease and that the potential for spinal cord compression by dysplastic bone or cartilage be recognized. The association of peroxisomal dysfunction with congenital rubella has not been described previously. The interaction between rubella virus infection and peroxisomal function may need further investigation.
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17/55. MS and SLE in twins of successive generations.

    During a nationwide twin study on multiple sclerosis (MS) in finland a dizygotic pair discordant for MS was found. The affected co-twin had dizygotic twin daughters. The affected co-twin of the second generation had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both pairs were thoroughly examined. No evidence of CNS involvement in the healthy co-twins was found. In pairwise comparisons, virus-specific IgG antibodies to measles and mumps were significantly increased in the MS patient whereas the same was true for rubella in the SLE patient. Both MS and SLE patient expressed HLA alleles most often found to be associated with these disorders. Reversed CD4/CD8 ratios were observed in both MS and SLE patient. No difference in interleukin-2 receptor expression were found but gamma-interferon secretion in the MS patient showed marked increase whereas that of the SLE patient was of the same magnitude as in the healthy members. A different triggering stimulus rather than the dissimilarity in the immunogenetic predisposition may be decisive as to whether or not they develop MS or SLE.
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ranking = 5.855087125279
keywords = measles, virus
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18/55. viruses, neurodevelopmental disorder and childhood psychosis.

    Four cases are described of prepubertal boys in whom the convergence of neurodevelopmental disorder, viral infection and psychosis seemed more than coincidental. review of the literature highlights the possibility that viral infection of the central nervous system may play a contributory role in childhood psychosis. Whilst it is essential to avoid a reductionist stance when investigating these difficult conditions, the emergence of potent anti-viral treatments and sophisticated methods of identifying the presence of viral infection should encourage us to consider more carefully the relevance of viruses in childhood psychosis.
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keywords = virus
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19/55. Virus-specific and autoreactive T cell lines isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with chronic rubella panencephalitis.

    Using a recently described technique for expanding of human T lymphocyte populations from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), we investigated the local cellular immune response in a patient with chronic rubella panencephalitis. A total of 328 T cell lines (TCLs) was established by seeding CSF cells at limiting dilution into histoplates in the presence of irradiated feeder cells and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-containing conditioned medium. 80% of TCLs expressed the CD4 CD8-, 5% the CD4-CD8 phenotype and 15% of TCLs contained different proportions of CD4 and CD8 cells. Of 191 TCLs analyzed, 85 were cytotoxic, as shown by their lectin-dependent cytotoxicity against allogeneic uninfected target cells. Eight of them demonstrated specificity for the autologous, rubella virus-infected target cells. When tested for antigen-specific proliferative activity, 26 TCLs responded to rubella antigen, 16 TCLs reacted to myelin basic protein (MBP), four TCLs to proteolipid protein (PLP), four to galactocerebrosides and two to actin. Fourteen out of 16 MBP-specific TCLs also responded, to a minor degree, to rubella antigen and/or actin. The results showed that the persisting rubella infection had given rise to autoreactive T cells. Virus-induced autoreactivity to brain antigens may be an important pathogenetic mechanism in other chronic inflammatory disorders of the CNS.
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20/55. Detection of rubella-specific IgM in subclinical rubella reinfection in pregnancy.

    Seven cases of asymptomatic rubella reinfection in early pregnancy are described. In each, there was a history of exposure to a rubelliform illness and low levels of rubella-specific IgM subsequently appeared in the serum. Four of the women had been immunised, after having been shown to be susceptible to rubella, one had been immunised at school without previous antibody screening, and two were uncertain about immunisation. One pregnancy was terminated and rubella virus was not isolated from the products of conception. Six pregnancies went to term and the infants showed no evidence of intrauterine infection. In a further case it was impossible to discriminate between reinfection and primary infection, and termination of pregnancy was offered.
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keywords = virus
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