Cases reported "Rupture, Spontaneous"

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1/32. Spontaneous ventriculostomy: report of three cases revealed by flow-sensitive phase-contrast cine MR imaging.

    Spontaneous ventriculostomy is a rare condition that occurs with the spontaneous rupture of a ventricle, resulting in a communication between the ventricular system and the subarachnoid space. Three cases of spontaneous ventriculostomy through the floor of the third ventricle that occurred in cases of chronic obstructive hydrocephalus are presented. The communication was identified via flow-sensitive phase-contrast cine MR imaging. Spontaneous ventriculostomy is probably a result of a rupture of the normally thin membrane that forms the floor of the third ventricle and, with long-standing obstructive hydrocephalus, creates an internal drainage pathway that spontaneously compensates for the hydrocephalus.
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2/32. Hepatic hydatid cyst rupturing into sub-diaphragmatic space and pericardial cavity.

    A ten-year-old male child presented with a large hepatic hydatid cyst which ruptured into the sub-diaphragmatic space and pericardial cavity, giving rise to a pericardial effusion. This communication between the hydatid cyst and the pericardium was documented on computerised tomographic scan of the chest and abdomen. The cyst was aspirated carefully and then enucleated. There was an associated right-sided reactionary pleural effusion. The pericardial effusion and pleural effusion resolved on albendazole therapy and did not require surgical intervention.
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3/32. Boerhaave syndrome: a case report.

    Spontaneous rupture of the esophagus (Boerhaave syndrome) is a rare condition that has many possible causes, among them violent retching. The definitive treatment for the ruptured esophagus is surgical repair. Potential complications include infection in many forms, pleural effusion, and pneumothorax. This case study presents an overview of the syndrome, including morbidity, mortality, and treatment. The patient in this case is a 61-year-old man who had 1 episode of violent vomiting resulting in a perforation of the esophagus with communication into the right chest cavity. The patient underwent surgical repair of the rupture with placement of a feeding tube and creation of an esophageal diversion to promote healing of the surgical site.
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4/32. Spontaneous communication between a simple renal cyst and the pyelocaliceal system with a gas-producing infection.

    We present the extremely rare case of a 44-year-old woman who presented with right flank pain and high fever, which proved to be a case of spontaneous communication between a renal cyst and the pyelocaliceal system caused by increased pressure in the renal pelvic cavity exerted by a stone leading to infection.
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5/32. Intraventricular free wall dissection causing acute interventricular communication with intact septum in myocardial infarction.

    This report delineates a previously unrecognized complication of acute myocardial infarction, an intraventricular wall dissection producing interventricular communication without septal perforation. The clinical, hemodynamic, and pathologic features of this unique condition are documented, as well as the factors important in the mechanism of its production.
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6/32. rupture of pregnant noncommunicating rudimentary uterine horn with fetal salvage: a case report.

    A rare case of noncommunicating rudimentary uterine horn pregnancy is described. The pregnancy proceeded to twenty-six gestational weeks when the rudimentary uterine horn ruptured as the patient had signs and symptoms of massive hemoperitoneum. An emergency exploratory laparotomy revealed incomplete rupture of the gravid rudimentary horn. A viable female infant with a birth weight of 633 g was delivered. The rudimentary horn had no direct communication to the uterine cavity of the unicornate right uterus. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the excised uterine horn was filled with placental tissue without an intervening layer of decidua basalis.
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7/32. Dissecting intramural haematoma of the coronary artery with intimal tears.

    A dissecting intramural haematoma of the coronary artery is an infrequent cause of sudden and unexpected death. Most cases are women and in a significant number of these women, the haematoma occurred at term to 80 days postpartum. Because the intimal rupture and communication with the lumen were not found in most of the cases, the site of rupture has been considered to be a vasa vasorum. The authors report on a case of one woman who was at a later postpartum period (106 days). The microscopic finding of the dissected coronary artery revealed two intimal tears in a section. The case showed that the dissecting intramural haematoma of the coronary artery is caused not only by the rupture of the vasa vasorum but also by the rupture of the intima.
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8/32. Sonographic and computed tomographic demonstration of hydatid cysts communicating with the biliary tree.

    Hepatic hydatid disease is usually silent and discovered incidentally. rupture of a hydatid cyst into the biliary tree is a serious complication and produces a clinical picture of biliary obstruction. We present the cases of 2 patients who had only nonspecific symptoms and laboratory test results indicative of biliary tract obstruction. The results of sonographic examinations of both patients strongly suggested the presence of hepatic hydatid cysts communicating with the biliary tree. CT examination provided additional information in 1 patient but only confirmed the sonographic findings in the other. Both cases were surgically confirmed. Demonstration of the cyst and intrabiliary hydatid contents should form the basis for the diagnosis of a hydatid cyst's rupture into the biliary tree; detecting the point of communication further supports the diagnosis. An accurate preoperative diagnosis of this disease is essential for its prompt surgical management.
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9/32. Progressive growth of a pelvic collection five years after endovascular aneurysm repair: an atypical presentation of an asymptomatic contained rupture.

    We report a case of an unusual and late presentation of an asymptomatic contained rupture after modular stent-graft implantation to treat an aortobiiliac aneurysm. Follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans 4 and 5 years after endovascular aneurysm repair showed a homogeneous, nonenhancing, but clearly growing, pelvic collection. CT-guided drainage of the collection was performed, and cultures of the evacuated brown fluid were negative for any infection. Control CT scan after drainage showed a complete collapse of both the collection and the previously excluded iliac aneurysms. A direct communication between the sterile pelvic collection and the excluded iliac aneurysm was suggested on this CT imaging and confirmed afterwards by surgery. From these imaging and surgical findings, this pelvic collection can be considered as an atypical presentation of an asymptomatic contained rupture of the excluded aneurysm.
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10/32. Simultaneous papillary muscle avulsion and free wall rupture during acute myocardial infarction. Intra-aortic balloon pump: a bridge to survival.

    Mechanical complications of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are rare, but often fatal. Medical therapy does not provide adequate risk reduction, and surgical correction is recommended when feasible. Supplemental hemodynamic support utilizing intra-aortic counterpulsation with a balloon pump provides an improvement in morbidity and mortality when combined with a corrective surgical approach. We report a case of an elderly male with a progressive 2-week history of ischemic symptoms presenting with acute pulmonary edema, hypotension and an inferior wall ST-elevation MI. His hospital course was complicated by ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) and cardiogenic shock, which resulted in a papillary muscle rupture/avulsion from the inferolateral myocardial wall, and a communication for blood from ventricle to pericardial space. Initial management included mechanical ventilation, pharmacologic inotropic support, percutaneous revascularization of the culprit lesion and intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation. The patient underwent further successful cardiovascular surgical correction of his incompetent mitral valve, free wall rupture and other obstructive coronary arteries, leading to discharge and survival. Mechanical complications from AMI and the role of intra-aortic balloon support are discussed.
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