Cases reported "Rupture, Spontaneous"

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1/136. survival without surgical repair of acute rupture of the right ventricular free wall.

    rupture of the myocardial free wall is an infrequent complication of acute myocardial infarction. Unless it occurs in a space confined by pericardial adhesions, only surgical emergency repair of ruptured myocardium can prevent death. In this paper we report the case of an 81-year-old woman who was admitted to the emergency room with cardiac tamponade, resulting from inferolateral acute myocardial infarction and a subsequent rupture of the right ventricular free wall, with the formation of pericardial thrombus and effusion. The patient refused to undergo any surgical or invasive intervention, and therefore she was only treated conservatively. Nevertheless, her condition improved dramatically, as her blood pressure increased and echocardiography abnormalities almost disappeared. Follow-up echocardiography 7 months post discharge was unremarkable. We believe that this rare case emphasizes that in special circumstances, such as creation of a thrombus that prevents more blood from extravasating, free-wall rupture without surgical repair is compatible with long-term survival.
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2/136. Pleural perforation of an aspergilloma cavity occurring in a patient with interstitial lung disease.

    An aspergilloma is a fungus ball resulting from colonization of pre-existing pulmonary cavities, which usually represents a non-invasive form of aspergillosis. Spontaneous rupture of the cavity containing the fungi into the pleural space is an unusual complication that has been reported occasionally in patients with leukemia and invasive aspergillosis. We report on this unusual complication occurring in a patient with underlying interstitial lung disease, in whom the aspergilloma cavity abruptly ruptured into the pleural space with subsequent hydropneumothorax and pleural spillage of the fungi.
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3/136. Sudden death in an infant caused by rupture of a basilar artery aneurysm.

    Ruptured aneurysms of the cerebrovasculature in infancy and early childhood, except for "giant" aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations, are rare. seizures, loss of consciousness, and apnea are the usual presenting signs in infancy; symptoms such as headache or visual disturbances and signs such as cranial nerve compression or meningeal irritation commonly found in older children or adults are absent in infants. However, the morphologic findings (i.e., subarachnoid and retinal hemorrhage, and occasionally subdural hemorrhage) may be mistaken for inflicted trauma, especially if the aneurysm is not identified. Sudden death caused by rupture of a cerebral aneurysm has not been previously described in an infant. This report outlines the investigation and autopsy findings in a 7-month-old infant who died unexpectedly as a result of rupture of a complex basilar artery aneurysm.
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4/136. Spontaneous hemothorax secondary to immature teratoma of the mediastinum.

    Spontaneous hemothorax in a 20-year-old boy was caused by rupture of an immature teratoma of the mediastinum. The tumor bled spontaneously into the right pleural space. This life-threatening complication necessitated emergency surgery. The unusual cause and the interesting clinical course of spontaneous hemothorax are described.
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5/136. Spontaneous ventriculostomy: report of three cases revealed by flow-sensitive phase-contrast cine MR imaging.

    Spontaneous ventriculostomy is a rare condition that occurs with the spontaneous rupture of a ventricle, resulting in a communication between the ventricular system and the subarachnoid space. Three cases of spontaneous ventriculostomy through the floor of the third ventricle that occurred in cases of chronic obstructive hydrocephalus are presented. The communication was identified via flow-sensitive phase-contrast cine MR imaging. Spontaneous ventriculostomy is probably a result of a rupture of the normally thin membrane that forms the floor of the third ventricle and, with long-standing obstructive hydrocephalus, creates an internal drainage pathway that spontaneously compensates for the hydrocephalus.
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6/136. Retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to spontaneous rupture of adrenal myelolipoma.

    BACKGROUND: A very rare case of retroperitoneal bleeding due to spontaneous rupture of a large adrenal myelolipoma in a 62-year-old woman is reported. methods/RESULTS: She consulted the emergency room of the Nagano red cross Hospital with a complaint of sudden left flank pain. A computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed a tumor with areas of fat density and hematoma in the left retroperitoneal space. After her general condition improved, an operation was performed. The tumor strongly adhered to the left kidney and a left nephrectomy with the tumor was curative. Histologic diagnosis was adrenal myelolipoma. No blood transfusion was required. CONCLUSIONS: A CT scan is very useful in the pre-operative diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma with retroperitoneal hemorrhage. Watch and wait treatments before operation and nephrectomy with adhered tumor are safe and curative.
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7/136. Using transcranial Doppler sonography to augment the neurological examination after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Vasospasm is the leading cause of death in patients who survive initial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Evidence of blood in the subarachnoid space on computed tomography (CT) scan can often predict the occurrence of vasospasm. Clinically, the onset of new or worsening neurological symptoms is the most reliable indicator of vasospasm. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) sonography studies can further aid the neuroscience nurse's assessment for vasospasm by measuring cerebral blood flow velocities. Physiological changes that occur during vasospasm cause the lumen of the blood vessel to decrease, increasing blood flow velocity through the affected area. Although vasospasm can only be definitively diagnosed by cerebral angiogram, TCD sonography provides a noninvasive, low-risk assessment tool that can be done at the beside. By coupling a patient's vital neurological data with blood flow velocity trends, the neuroscience nurse can anticipate the onset or worsening of vasospasm. This advanced nursing assessment allows for collaboration with the medical team to initiate and adjust appropriate therapies to improve patient outcomes.
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8/136. Ruptured intracranial dermoid cyst.

    Intradural dermoids are rare congenital tumors representing approximately 0.05% of all intracranial lesions. These benign tumors have a typical appearance on CT and MR due to their lipid components. The complication caused by rupture are the spillage of the fatty material into the cerebrospinal fluid. We report a case of a ruptured dermoid cyst showing fat/fluid levels in both side ventricles and fatty material in the subarachnoid space on CT and MR-imaging and the follow-up over four years after incomplete resection of the tumor.
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9/136. Ruptured pulmonary infarction: a rare, fatal complication of thromboembolic disease.

    We describe 2 men, ages 69 and 49 years, who experienced fatal rupture of pulmonary infarcts. Both patients had documented prior thromboembolic events and subsequently had abrupt deterioration in cardiorespiratory function. Autopsies showed massive unilateral hemothorax in both patients. rupture of a pulmonary infarct may occur spontaneously or iatrogenically due to aggressive anticoagulation. This may be difficult to distinguish from secondary hemothorax with an intact pleura, but rupture typically has a considerably more rapid clinical evolution. Treatment should include immediate withdrawal of thrombolytic or anticoagulant medications and evacuation of the pleural space. Surgical intervention can be considered, although the utility of that approach must await prospective trials.
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10/136. Arachnoid cyst rupture with concurrent subdural hygroma.

    arachnoid cysts (ACs) are relatively common intracranial mass lesions, which occur most often in the middle cranial fossa. While these lesions can present as a mass lesion, many are asymptomatic. Rarely, posttraumatic or spontaneous rupture of ACs can result in intracystic hemorrhage, subdural hematoma or subdural hygroma. We have encountered two cases of ruptured arachnoid cysts that resulted in subdural hygromas. Both patients harbored middle cranial fossa cysts and suffered mild closed head injuries. The presentation, radiographic findings and surgical management of these patients as well as the association between ACs and subdural hygromas are described.
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